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Cognitive level of analysis Cognitive processes © Hodder & Stoughton 2013
Activity Show the image on the right to a group of people sat in chairs. Ask them to stand up when they see something wrong with it. Time how long it takes for all of them to stand up. © Hodder & Stoughton 2013
Read the two studies below and see if you can explain using the concept of schema why participants perceived and remembered things in the way that they did Balcetis & Dunning (2006) briefly flashed a figure that could be a B or a 13. Participants told that seeing a letter would earn them a nice drink perceived a letter, while those told seeing a number would earn them the nice drink perceived the number. Postman & Bruner (1947) showed a picture of a white man, with a knife, arguing with an unarmed black man. However, many participants remembered the black man as carrying the knife. © Hodder & Stoughton 2013
Command words: The language of the learning outcomes Exam questions will require candidates to assess the effectiveness and value of schema theory, in the extent to which it can explain cognitive processes, such as perception and memory. This could occur through an assessment of schema theory’s strengths and weaknesses, based on research evidence, as well as a consideration of methodological issues, practical applications and other general evaluative points. © Hodder & Stoughton 2013 Learning outcome: Evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies
Theories of visual perception Gregory’s ‘top down’ theory An explanation that understands perception as an interpretation of sensory data based on previous experience. Perception is indirect, as it involves going beyond sensory data to analyze information at a higher top down cognitive level of processing. As sensory data is often incomplete/ambiguous, perception is constructed through perceptual set; a readiness to interpret data in a pre-set manner due to previous experience, emotional states, motivational factors and cultural influences. Gibson’s ‘bottom up’ theory An explanation that understands perception as arising from sensory data provided by the optical array (the pattern of light entering the eyes). Sensory data is seen as rich enough to permit direct perception without need for any higher level cognitive processing and thus is a bottom up procedure. Perception occurs through detection of environmental invariances, unchanging aspects of the visual world that permit features of the environment to be established. © Hodder & Stoughton 2013
Command words: The language of the learning outcomes Exam questions will require candidates to assess the effectiveness and value of two explanations of one cognitive process (e.g. Gregory and Gibson for perception). This could occur through an assessment of the theories’ strengths and weaknesses, based on research evidence, practical applications and direct comparison of the two explanations, as well as a consideration of the nature (Gibson) versus nurture (Gregory) debate and methodological issues. © Hodder & Stoughton 2013 Learning outcome: Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process
Are memories reliable? Loftus & Pickrell (2003) asked 120 participants who had visited Disneyland as children to assess advertizing copy. Group 1 read a fake Disney advert featuring no cartoon characters. Group 2 read a fake advert featuring no cartoon characters, but with a cardboard figure of Bugs Bunny in the room. Group 3 read a fake advert featuring Bugs Bunny. Group 4 read a fake advert featuring Bugs Bunny and with a cardboard figure of Bugs Bunny in the room. 8% of Group 1, 4% of Group 2, 30% of Group 3 and 40% of Group 4 recalled meeting Bugs Bunny as a child and shaking his hand. 1.Explain by reference to Loftus & Pickrell’s study how using misleading information led to participants remembering meeting Bugs Bunny at Disneyland; an impossibility, as Bugs is a Warner Brothers character. 2.What does this suggest in general about the reliability of our memories? 3.How might advertizers use the findings of this research to get us to falsely recall their products as desirable? © Hodder & Stoughton 2013
To name two contrasting theories of perception To explain what is meant by the phrase ‘Top Down’ processing To Outline Richard Gregory’s theory of perception.
Contemporary Issues The Cognitive Approach Aidan Sammonswww.psychlotron.org.uk.
J.J. and Richard are arguing about how we come to know the world around us. Richard says, “The way we perceive our environment is heavily influenced by.
The effect of psychological factors on Perceptual Set. There are a number of things which influence how we interpret the world. These are; 1.Past experience.
Social Influences on Gender INTRODUCTION:. Two types of socializing ‘forces’ Informal socializing agents People in which close contact occurs:- Parents.
Cognitive Level of Analysis OBJECTIVE: Evaluate Schema Theory with reference to research studies.
Visual Perception – Perceptual Set. Look closely at the illustration of a seal act for a circus in the figure below. What do you see?
Gibson’s Bottom-up Theory. Gibson Gibson proposed a bottom-up theory of perception. This is a theory based on nature There is no need to use experience.
Bartlett SAQ. Lesson Objectives Compile a key study sheet for the ‘chocolates make you smarter study’ and evaluate our study using the MECG framework.
Cognitive Level of Analysis. What is Cognition? Cognitive LoA is new to psychology (40-50 years) Important way to look at your life – important to be.
Area of Study #2 Visual Perception. Perception Imagine you are sitting on the sofa, reading a book. While reading you become aware of a slight, unidentifiable.
Situated Cognition: A New Direction in AI Bram van Heuveln.
Biological level of analysis Physiology and behaviour © Hodder & Stoughton 2013.
Schema Theory Cognitive Psychology. psychlotron.org.uk Source: Roth & Bruce (1995)
Mental imagery Some mental imagery phenomena How are mental images represented? Are mental images processed like visual images?
Deregowski (1972) Pictorial perception and culture.
What’s this picture of?. Schema Theory Cognitive Psychology.
MIND: The Cognitive Side of Mind and Brain “… the mind is not the brain, but what the brain does…” (Pinker, 1997)
Man is a credulous animal, and must believe in something. In the absence of good grounds for belief, he will be satisfied with bad ones. -Bertrand Russell.
MSM Objective – to identify the strengthens and weaknesses of the MSM of memory.
Write them down Did you note down ‘sweet’ and ‘angry’?
Last week we looked at Gregory’s Top Down theory of perception. (Indirect theory) Gregory Nature/ Nurture (perception is influenced by learned knowledge.
AS Level Psychology The core studies Cognitive Approach.
Happy Tuesday Halloweenies Today: 1.Mini Lecture and Video: Perception and Processing 2.Key Vocab Activity 3.Understanding Top Down vs Bottom Up Processing.
PERCEPTION IS… The process of recognizing, organizing, and interpreting sensory information.
Extension: How easy do you think it would be to separate these influences to find out the %? From what you already know, what % would you classify gender.
Pattern Recognition Pattern - complex composition of sensory stimuli that the human observer may recognize as being a member of a class of objects Issue.
Article Read the article Answer the questions. DIRT.
Sport psychology Emotion and motivation © Hodder & Stoughton 2013.
Lesson One: Intro to Cognitive Psychology Specification A – Models of Memory 1.The multi-store model including concepts of encoding, capacity and duration.
Unit 4(G): Perceptual Organization and Interpretation Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology.
Introductions and Vision Sensation and Perception.
DO NOW: Figuring Out Who You Are Take a copy of the article from the stool and read it independently. Decide what you think of it and be prepared to discuss.
SOCIAL APPROACH EVALUATION & EXAM Core Study 1: Milgram (1963) Behavioural Study of Obedience.
Source: Roth & Bruce (1995). Source: members.lycos.nl/amazingart/
Getting you thinking: Take out your Interference Theory Evaluation Sheet and compare your notes to those of your neighbour. Also be ready to hand in your.
Core Concept 5-1 The brain senses the world indirectly because the sense organs convert stimulation into the language of the nervous system: neural messages.
Memory and the power of suggestion. Objectives Describe how valid eye witness testimony is Analyze the power of suggestion Explain children's testimony.
Perception Chapter 4. Outline 1.From Sensation to Representation 1.Basic Concepts 2.Perceptual Constancies 3.Depth Perception 4.Gestalt Approaches to.
Qualitative methods An Introduction © Hodder & Stoughton 2013.
Bruner’s Theory (about 15 min) Jerome Bruner Goal of education is to make learner “as autonomous and self- propelled a thinker” as possible Education.
PYA1: Critical Issue Eye Witness Testimony EWT. Eye Witness Testimony EWT The statements provided by witnesses of a crime or situation which help to establish.
Evaluating Gibson. Evidence bank Pick at least 3 studies you can use to develop an evaluative paragraph Try and pick out ones that demonstrate different.
APPROACHES a. Cognitive Approach b. Behaviourist Perspective c. Individual Differences Approach Research Methods & Approaches G544.
Psychlotron.org.uk Source: Roth & Bruce (1995). psychlotron.org.uk Source: members.lycos.nl/amazingart/
Cognitive Level of Analysis. Principles of Cognitive Level of Analysis 1.Mental processes guide behavior. 2.There is a biological basis for cognitive.
Starter You can never step twice into the same river Heraclitus (c.500B.C.) What does this mean? Do you agree?
Loftus and Palmer (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: an example of the interaction between language and memory Field of psychology:
Six Approaches to Psychology COGNITIVE APPROACH. Cognition is the process by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered,
Module 17 – Basic Principles of Sensation & Perception Sensation – the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent.
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