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Overview Class #5 (Thurs, Jan 30) Rigid body contact –Read B&W course notes on Collision and Contact Constraint formulation Lagrangian Reduced coordinate Cool applications! Graphics literature

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Rigid Body Dynamics

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Rotations from last day; One last thing… Quaternions Obey same SO(3) group structure as the rotation matrices Efficient 4-vector representation of rotations that do not suffer mathematical singularities Briefly on the whiteboard… See also: –Murray, Li, Sastry, “A Mathematical Intro. to Robotic Manipulation,” (p. 33) (Handout) –Andrew Hanson, “Visualizing Quaternions,” SIGGRAPH 2001 Course Notes, (Fun with Clifford Algebras!) –And Baraff course notes.

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Simple/common idea for rigid contact Signed distance function, = (g A,g B ) >0 : Separated =0 : In contact <0 : Rigid interpenetration Contact Separation Distance AB B B A A

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Overview of Contact Models Continuous Contact Contact constraints LCP Optimization, etc,... Contact Models Deformable Bodies Rigid BodiesImpact Force Response Rigid Models Impulse Response Rigid Models, e.g., Mirtich & Canny PenaltyHarmonic Penalty Eg, [Goyal,Pinson,…,93] Hunt & Crossley (Recall Hertz, kx 3/2 ) Adapted from D.Pai 99 Contact Response Maps Ullrich & Pai, ICRA, 1998 NOTE: x=-

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Overview of Contact Models

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A little history: Hertz Contact Idealized quasistatic contact between spheres H. Hertz, Über die Berührung fester elastischer Körper, Gesammelte Werke, Bd. 1, Leipzig (some images from Piet van Dijk, “Contact Spots,” Proc. 20th Conf. On Electrical Contacts ICEC, 2000.) f 3/2

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Reality of “spherical contact”… Real surface contact problems are complex! Models of surface contact (and friction) are highly approximate in practice Not a serious problem for graphics… … important for contact sounds (will discuss later)

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Penalty Methods Penalty spring force More sophisticated models use damping For example:

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Overview of Contact Models

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Contact Response Maps Ullrich & Pai, Contact Response Maps for Real Time Dynamic Simulation, ICRA, Convolve contact forcing with the precomputed impulse response function of a linear elastodynamic model. Generalized force response model Includes effect of vibration and internal shock waves produced by contact

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Overview of Contact Models

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Impulse Response Contact Models Brian Mirtich and John F. Canny, Impulse-Based Simulation of Rigid Bodies, Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, , 1995.

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Overview of Contact Models

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The Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP) Formulation of the contact force problem Famous mathematical problem Briefly (on whiteboard) See papers on webpage, e.g., by Baraff, Trinkle, Anitescu, etc.

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Constrained vs Reduced Coordinate Approaches Fast Lagrange multipliers D. Baraff. Linear-time dynamics using Lagrange multipliers, SIGGRAPH 96. Ascher, Pai, Cloutier, Forward Dynamics, Elimination Methods, and Formulation Stiffness in Robot Simulation, 1997 Reduced coordinates Difficult to exploit in general contact animations –Robotic assemblies important special case; see [Featherstone; Murray, Li, Sastry]

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Dynamics with Smooth Surface Contact P. G. Kry, and D. K. Pai, Continuous Contact Simulation for Smooth Surfaces, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Jan 2003.

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Other Issues Constraints with closed loops Mathematically tricky DAEs (Differential Algebraic Equations) For details see, e.g., François Faure, Fast Iterative Refinement of Articulated Solid Dynamics, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 5(3), pp , 1999.Fast Iterative Refinement of Articulated Solid Dynamics U. Ascher and P. Lin, SIAM J. Scient. Comput. 21 (1999), : Sequential Regularization Methods for simulating mechanical systems with many closed loops) Sequential Regularization Methods for simulating mechanical systems with many closed loops

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Parallel Computation Large scale rigid body simulation Time-warp approach from discrete simulation

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Cool Applications Graphics is interested in more than just rigid body mechanics fundamentals

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Random Sampling of Rigid Motions Stephen Chenney and D.A.Forsyth, "Sampling Plausible Solutions to Multi-Body Constraint Problems". SIGGRAPH 2000 Conference Proceedings, pages , July 2000."Sampling Plausible Solutions to Multi-Body Constraint Problems" SIGGRAPH 2000 Conference Proceedings, pages , July MOVIE: 30 balls fall into 105 bins. These solutions were hand chosen from a chain that produced several hundred examples in iterations, taking seven days to compute on a PC. The longer computation time is due to the greater number of balls, because each simulation takes longer and the constraints are much harder to satisfy.

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Placement of Rigid Objects in Scenes John Snyder, An interactive tool for placing curved surfaces without interpenetration, SIGGRAPH 95.

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Interactive Manipulation of Rigid Body Simulations Jovan Popovic, Steven M. Seitz, Michael Erdmann, Zoran Popovic, and Andrew Witkin. Interactive Manipulation of Rigid Body Simulations. In Computer Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000), ACM SIGGRAPH, Annual Conference Series,

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Evolving Virtual Creatures Sims, K., "Evolving Virtual Creatures," Computer Graphics (Siggraph '94) Annual Conference Proceedings, July 1994, pp Evolving Virtual Creatures

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Sims, K., "Evolving Virtual Creatures,"Evolving Virtual Creatures Computer Graphics (Siggraph '94) Annual Conference Proceedings, July 1994, pp

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