Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer – Feb. 24 & 27 What was the Schlieffen Plan? Where was the Western Front located and who fought there? Where was the Eastern Front located."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer – Feb. 24 & 27 What was the Schlieffen Plan? Where was the Western Front located and who fought there? Where was the Eastern Front located and who fought there?
RIFLE The main weapon used by British soldiers in the trenches was the bolt-action rifle. 15 rounds could be fired in a minute and a person 1,400 meters away could be killed. Artillery Machine guns need 4 to 6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface. They had the firepower of 100 guns. Large field guns had a long range and could deliver devastating blows to the enemy but need up to 12 men to work them. They fired shells which exploded on impact.
POISONUS GAS The German Army was the first to use chlorine gas at the Battle of Ypres in Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains. Death is painful-you suffocate! The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must be right. If the wind is blowing in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy. Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in shells. It is colorless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects include: blustering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Death can take up to 5 weeks.
ZEPPELIN The Zeppelin, also known as a blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war in bombing raids by the Germans. They carried machine guns and bombs. However, they were abandoned because they were easy to shoot out of the sky.
TANK Tanks were used for the first time in the First World War at the Battle of the Somme. They were developed to cope with the conditions on the Western Front. The first tank was called 'Little Willie' and needed a crew of three. Its maximum speed was 3 mph and it could not cross trenches. The more modern tank was not developed until just before the end of the war. It could carry ten men and reach 4 mph (walking speed).
TORPEDOES This weapon was used by submarines. The Germans used them to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain.
PLANES Planes were also used for the first time. At first they were used to deliver bombs and for spying work but became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs, and sometimes cannons. Fights between two planes in the sky became known as “dogfights.”
World War I: Turning Points and Russian Revolution
Use the pictures to figure out who the LOSERS of the day are!
Today’s Objectives Explain how the Zimmerman Telegram and the Sinking of the Lusitania led to the United States entering WWI. List the events that led to the Russian Revolution and describe the future of Russia. Recognize the turning points to WWI: withdrawal of the Russians due to their Communist Revolution and the entrance of the Americans because of aggressive German actions that threatened U.S. neutrality.
American Isolationism With war raging in Europe, America was hesitant to get involved. However, the U.S. was trade partners and lent money to European nations. President Woodrow Wilson
War Moves to the High Seas The war was bogged down in the trenches of the Western & Eastern Fronts. British navy blockades Germany German navy blockades Britain
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Germany was desperate because war was not going well on the Western Front. Belief that such a tactic might keep America out of the war if the results were spectacular and shocking enough.
Lusitania May 7, 1915 a German submarine sunk the British passenger ship, Lusitania.
1,198 people died (128 were U.S. Citizens) Germany claimed the ship was carrying ammunition (which turned to be true!) American public was outraged!
1. Who does Germany want to create an alliance with if the U.S. enters the war? 2. What will Germany help Mexico with if they become allies with Germany? 3. How do you think the U.S. will feel when they read this? Predict what the U.S. will do.
Zimmerman Telegram February 1917, another action pushed the U.S. closer to war. British intercepted a telegram from Germany’s foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman to the Ambassador of Mexico. In the telegram is said that Germany would help Mexico “re-conquer” the land it had lost to the U.S. if Mexico became a German ally.
Sinking of the Lusitania + Zimmerman Telegram Declaration of WAR The Great War Movie Clip Chapters 3 & 4
German ActionAmerican Reaction Unrestricted _____________ Warfare Ex. ____________ is sunk How did Americans feel? _______________ Telegram Promised US land to ________ How did Americans feel? What did the US do? Which side did they join?
German ActionAmerican Reaction Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Ex. Lusitania is sunk Outraged at Germany Zimmerman Telegram Promised US land to Mexico Outraged at Germany On the Allied side, the U.S. joined: Great Britain, France, and Russia. US enters WWI on the side of the Allies
With the United States finally in the war, the balance, it seemed, was about to tip the in the Allies favor. But, before that could happen…
The Russian Revolution
Let’s remember what causes a revolution Enlightenment Ideas: There are new and better ways of doing things. 2. Unpopular Rule: People don’t like the type of government. 3. Economic Distress: Money Problems, Food Shortages 4. Social Injustice: A group of people are treated unfairly. 5. Religious Intolerance: A religious group is outlawed (forbidden) or treated unfairly. 6. Nationalism: Pride in your people or nation and wanting to be free and independent.
Japan humiliated Russia in Russo-Japanese War Why would the Russian people want to revolt after a embarrassing defeat in the war?
A lot of military losses in WWI Losing battles & millions dying Why would soldiers want to revolt after many military defeats and high causalities?
Tsar Nicolas II was incompetent. Why would the people want to revolt because of an incompetent ruler and food shortages?
Peasants did not have land and they wanted some! Peasants worked land they didn’t own. Why would landless peasants want to revolt?
Bolshevik Revolution Revolution against Romanov rulers Led by Vladimir Lenin Lenin believed: Socialism Lenin promised: PEACE, LAND, BREAD Bolshevik = Russians that wanted to overthrow the royal family and introduce communism
Russia’s withdrawal from the war allowed Germany to send all of their troops to the Western Front. Russian Revolution led to the rise of communism.
Russia Becomes U.S.S.R. Russia drops out of WWI in Lenin’s plan = New Economic Policy (NEP) Some capitalism allowed to help economy Civil War between the “Reds” (Bolsheviks) & “Whites” Russia becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
The Romanov Family Anastasia The Russian Revolution Chapters 4 & 5
Things to Do Russian Revolution reading worksheet and questions Russian revolution word search
Journal #3 Assignment Write a journal entry as an American citizen reacting to news of the Zimmerman telegram and the sinking of the Lusitania. Are you an isolationist or do you want revenge? How would staying out of the war or entering it impact America? How would a war impact YOU?