Imperialism Empire building European countries competed against each other for colonies Started rivalries
Militarism Europeans believed they needed a powerful military to be truly great Made countries feel good about themselves Scared neighbors
Unstable Alliances Germany, Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire Britain, France, Russia, Italy UNSTABLE- the only thing they had in common was their enemy, shared borders with enemies
Chain Reaction Austria declared war. Russia (Serbia’s ally) moved army toward the Russian-Austrian border AND German border Russia told Germany it was a “just in case” move Germany declared war on Russia Russia asked France for help Before France could respond, Germany declared war on France
Schlieffen Plan Germany would rush West and invade France, then rush back East and invade Russia Germany needed to pass through Belgium (Belgium said “NO WAY!!”) Germany declared war on Belgium Britain declared war on Germany
New Weapons Poison gas- Soldiers wore masks to protect themselves. Introduced by the Germans, used by both sides, blinding, blisters, death
New Weapons Machine gun (improved)- fires ammunition automatically, wiped out waves of attackers at once
New Weapons Airplane-WWI is the first time in history that planes were used in a combat role. At first they were used for taking photographs of enemy lines. Later used for dropping bombs.
New Weapons Submarine- Germans issued them first, then both sides used them, hard to detect by the enemy
The U.S. enters the war Unrestricted submarine warfare- sinking of the Lusitania (American citizens were onboard), Germany said they would assume all ships were enemy ships
The U.S. enters the war Zimmerman Telegram- Germany’s foreign secretary (Zimmerman) sent a message to Mexico saying if they joined the war on Germany’s side, Germany would help them get part of the U.S. The U.S. decoded the message.
The U.S. enters the war America’s bond with England America’s trade relationship with the Allied powers
The end of the War Russia has internal problems, they sign peace treaty with Germany Germany focuses all attention on Western front Germany started strong, then gradually lost strength Germany was forced to sign an armistice (peace treaty)
How the world changed Political, economic, social changes France countryside and economy was almost completely destroyed Germany lost a lot of resources and respect Increased tension in the world