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Screening, Assessment and Management of Fatigue in Adult Survivors of Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Introduction This guideline summarizes the results of a guideline adaptation process and presents recommendations on cancer-related fatigue Adapted from 3 existing guidelines: – Pan-Canadian guideline on Screening, Assessment and Care of Cancer-Related Fatigue in Adults with Cancer – NCCN Guideline for Cancer-Related Fatigue – NCCN Guideline for Surviorship © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
ASCO Survivorship Guidelines Growing number of cancer survivors ASCO has responded with steps to promote evidenced-based, comprehensive, compassionate, and coordinated survivorship care © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Methods ASCO considers adaptation in selected circumstances – When one or more quality guidelines from other organizations already exist on the same topic ADAPTE Methodology – Take advantage of existing guidelines – Enhance efficiency and reduce duplication – Promote uptake of quality recommendations © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Adaptation Process Literature search to identify candidate guidelines Methodological review Content review by an ad hoc, multidisciplinary Panel © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Pan-Canadian and NCCN Guidelines All three guidelines offered comprehensive and user-friendly algorithms that were helpful in informing screening, assessment, and treatment options © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Definition of cancer-related fatigue (Modified from NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue and NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship) Cancer-related fatigue is a distressing, persistent, subjective sense of physical, emotional, and/or cognitive tiredness or exhaustion related to cancer and/or cancer treatment that is not proportional to recent activity and interferes with usual functioning. These guidelines are focused on fatigue in patients who have completed primary cancer treatment and/or are in clinical remission © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Screening (Modified from Pan-Canadian and NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue) All health care providers should routinely screen for the presence of fatigue from the point of diagnosis onward, including following completion of primary treatment. All patients should be screened for fatigue as clinically indicated and at least annually. Screening should be performed and documented using a quantitative or semi-quantitative assessment. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Comprehensive and Focused Assessment (Modified from NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship) History and Physical 1) Perform a focused fatigue history 2) Evaluate disease status 3) Assess treatable contributing factors As a shared responsibility, the clinical team must decide when referral to an appropriately trained professional (e.g., cardiologist, endocrinologist, mental health professional, internist, etc.) is needed. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Comprehensive and Focused Assessment Laboratory Evaluation (NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship verbatim) Consider performing laboratory evaluation based on presence of other symptoms, onset, and severity of fatigue o CBC with differential o Comprehensive metabolic panel o Endocrinologic evaluation © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Education and Counseling (Modified from Pan-Canadian and NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue) All patients should be offered specific education about fatigue following treatment (e.g. information about the difference between normal and cancer- related fatigue, persistence of fatigue post treatment, and causes and contributing factors). Patients should be offered advice on general strategies that help manage fatigue (e.g., physical activity, guidance on self- monitoring of fatigue levels). If treated for fatigue, patients should be followed and re- evaluated on a regular basis to determine whether treatment is effective or needs to be reassessed. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Treat Contributing Factors (Modified from Pan-Canadian and NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship) Address all medical and substance-induced treatable contributing factors first (e.g., comorbidities, medications, nutritional issues, activity level). Some patients can also benefit from interventions described in next slides to treat fatigue. Currently, there are no clear standards to select among these for an individual patient. Further research is needed to establish a strategy for prioritizing, sequencing, and linking the available options. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Physical Activity (Modified from Pan-Canadian and NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship) Initiating/maintaining adequate levels of physical activity can reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment survivors. Actively encourage all patients to engage in a moderate level of physical activity after cancer treatment (e.g., 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise such as fast walking, cycling, or swimming) per week with an additional 2 to 3 strength training (such as weight lifting) sessions per week, unless contraindicated. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Walking programs are generally safe for most cancer survivors; the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that cancer survivors can begin this type of program after consulting with their doctors but without any formal exercise testing (such as a stress test). Survivors at higher risk of injury (e.g., those living with neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, or other long-term effects of therapy) and patients with severe fatigue interfering with function should be referred to a physical therapist or exercise specialist. Breast cancer survivors with lymphedema should also consider meeting with an exercise specialist before initiating upper body strength-training exercise. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Psychosocial Interventions (Modified from NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship) Cognitive behavioral therapy/behavioral therapy can reduce cancer related fatigue in post-treatment survivors. Psycho-educational therapies/educational therapies can reduce cancer related fatigue in post-treatment survivors. Survivors should be referred to psychosocial service providers who specialize in cancer and are trained to deliver empirically-based interventions. Psychosocial resources that address fatigue may also be available through the National Cancer Institute and other organizations. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Mind-body Interventions There is some evidence that mindfulness-based approaches, yoga, and acupuncture can reduce fatigue in cancer survivors. Additional research, particularly in the post-treatment population, is needed for biofield therapies (touch therapy), massage, music therapy, relaxation, reiki, and qigong. Survivors should be referred to practitioners who specialize in cancer and who use protocols that have been empirically validated in cancer survivors. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Pharmacologic Interventions (Modified from NCCN Guidelines for Cancer-Related Fatigue and Survivorship) Evidence suggests that psychostimulants (e.g., methylphenidate) and other wakefulness agents (e.g., modafinil) can be effectively used to manage fatigue in patients with advanced disease or those on active treatment. However there is very limited evidence of their effectiveness in reducing fatigue in patients following active treatment who are currently disease-free. Small pilot studies have evaluated the impact of supplements, such as ginseng, vitamin D, and others for cancer-related fatigue. However, there is no consistent evidence of their effectiveness. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Final Recommendations: Treatment and Care Options Ongoing Monitoring and Follow-up Promote ongoing self-monitoring of fatigue levels, using a symptoms diary or other methods, as fatigue can be a late or long-term problem in post-treatment survivors. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Additional Resources Additional Information including data supplements, evidence tables, and clinical tools and resources can be found at Patient information is also available at © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
ASCO Panel Members Julienne E. Bower, Ph.D. (Co-chair) Psychology UCLA Departments of Psychology &Psychiatry/Biobehavioral Sciences Paul B. Jacobsen PhD (Co-chair) Psychology H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Ann Berger MSN, MD Pain and Palliative Care National Institutes of Health Clinical Center William Breitbart MD Psychiatry Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Carmelita P. Escalante MD Internal Medicine University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Patricia A. Ganz MD Medical Oncology University of California Los Angeles Schools of Medicine and Public Health Hester Hill Schnipper LICSW, BCD Patient Representative & Oncology Social Work Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Jennifer A. Ligibel MD Medical Oncology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Gary H. Lyman MD,MPH, FASCO, FRCP Medical Oncology Duke University and the Duke Cancer Institute Mohammed S. Ogaily MD, FACP ASCO PGIN Representative, Medical Oncology Oakwood Center for Hematology and Oncology-Downriver William F. Pirl MD Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer The information contained in, including but not limited to clinical practice guidelines and other guidance is based on the best available evidence at the time of creation and is provided by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Inc. (“ASCO”) to assist providers in clinical decision making. The information should not be relied upon as being complete or accurate, nor should it be considered as inclusive of all proper treatments or methods of care or as a statement of the standard of care. With the rapid development of scientific knowledge, new evidence may emerge between the time information is developed and when it is published or read. The information is not continually updated and may not reflect the most recent evidence. The information addresses only the topics specifically identified therein and is not applicable to other interventions, diseases, or stages of diseases. This information does not mandate any particular product or course of medical treatment. Further, the information is not intended to substitute for the independent professional judgment of the treating provider, as the information does not account for individual variation among patients. Recommendations reflect high, moderate or low confidence that the recommendation reflects the net effect of a given course of action. The use of words like “must,” “must not,” “should,” and “should not” indicate that a course of action is recommended or not recommended for either most or many patients, but there is latitude for the treating physician to select other courses of action in certain cases. In all cases, the selected course of action should be considered by the treating provider in the context of treating the individual patient. Use of the information is voluntary. ASCO provides this information on an “as is” basis, and makes no warranty, express or implied, regarding the information. ASCO specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ASCO assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of this information or for any errors or omissions. © 2014 American Society of Clinical Oncology®. All rights reserved.
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