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Presentation on theme: "IMPORT FOOD INSPECTION SYSTEM In Japan"— Presentation transcript:

Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph.D National Institute of Public Health, Japan

2 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues, Cadmium and Aflatoxin

3 Self-supply rate for Food <60%(calorie base >
         year ’65 ’75 ’85 ’90 ’95 ’00 ’05 ’07 ’08 Rice 95 110 107 100 104 94 95 Wheat 28 4 14 15 7 11 14 Bean 25 9 8 5 Vegetable 99 91 85 82 79 81 82 Fruits 90 84 77 63 49 44 41 40 Meat 81 70 57 52 54 56 Egg 97 98 96 Milk product 86 78 72 68 66 Fish 93 53 51 Sugar 31 15 33 32 29 34 33 38 self-sufficiency rates 73 54 48 43 40 Item

4 Cases & Weights of Imported Foods (Nationwide)
x10000 Cases Million Tones 1.86 milli 34 milli tones

5 Inspection of imported food the quarantine station
Submission of import notifications        Meat Inspect. Certificate Document inspection Onsite inspection  compliance Custom No-com- pliance ship back discard  Examination order Monitoring NO examination Acceptance of the notification Arrival of the cargo

6 Overview of the System of Inspections Conducted at the Time of Importation
Comprehensive import ban ※ Number of total(gross) of monitoring inspections is 83,951 cases Probability of violation High Inspection order 95,490 Inspection rate Enhanced monitoring 193,917 1,759,123 =11.0% FY2008 Total number of inspections/Number of import notifications 49,133 Monitoring inspection Administrative Inspection etc. 70,143 Low

7 Annual Monitoring Plan (2010 Fiscal Year)
Foods, etc. Analyses Samples Animal food (Meat, Milk, Egg) Animal drugs, Pesticides, Food standards, etc. 4,880 Animal processed food Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food standards, etc.  7,510 Sea food (Fish and Shellfish) Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food standards, etc  6,570 Processed sea food 12,360 Agricultural products (Grain, Vegetable, Fruit) Pesticides, Aflatoxin, GMO 22,280 Processed agricultural products Pesticides, Food Additives, Food standards, Aflatoxin, GMO, etc 17,150 Miscellaneous Food Additives, Food standards, etc.  4,800 Drinks  2,200 Food Additives, utensils, etc. Food standards, etc. 2,250 50% monitoring foods 5,000 Total 85,000

8 Number of notifications, analyses and rejections
Year ratio Weight No. of total analyses Analysis sites No. rejected cases Gov. lab Private lab Official Foreign lab 1000 tones *1   件 *2   件 1965 94,986 - 12,765 5,574 679 1975 246,507 20,775 21,461 1,634 1985 384,728 105.6 22,665 39,817 14,892 26,054 1,904 308 1995 1,052,030 109.2 28,268 141,128 60,787 74,634 19,760 948 2000 1,550925 110.5 30,034 112,281 52,244 63,789 (37,484) 3,796 1,037 2005 1,864,412 104.1 33,782 189,362 66,147 125,083 (73,589) 7,919 935 2007 1,797,086 96.7 32,261 198,542 58,299 144,846 (94,598) 5,818 1,150 2008 1,759,123 97.9 31,551 193,917 58,706 140,878 (95,490) 6,208 *1 行政検査、指定検査機関検査、外国公的検査機関検査の合計から重複を除いた数値 *2 ( )内の数値は、指定検査機関検査のうちの命令検査の件数

9 Inspection System for Imported Foods, etc.
Food Inspectors ・・・・・・・・383 persons Notification Sites for Imported Foods ・・・・・・31 sites Laboratory facilities Two Major Laboratories: Yokohama (Eastern Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious Diseases) Kobe (Western Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious Diseases) Six Minor Laboratories: Tokyo, Narita A.P., Nagoya, Osaka, Kansai A.P., Fukuoka

10 Notification Site Map for Imported Foods, etc.
Otaru QS Titose AP Sendai QS Sendai AP Narita AP QS Tokyo QS Hunabasi(Baraki) Tiba Haneda AP Kawasaki Yokohama QS Eastern Lab. Niigata QS Nagoya QS Nagoya AP Yokkaiti Simizu Osaka QS Kansai AP QS Kobe QS Western Lab. Hirosima QS Hirosima AP Sakai Kagosima Fukuoka AP Simonoseki Moji Fukuoka QS Nagasaki Naha QS Naha AP

11 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

12 Statistics on Food Import in Japan from Thailand

13 Top 5 items from Thailand 2008
Notification Analysis Violation Number Weight(t) Non-glutinous rice 261 203592 121 106335 14 3293 Cooked meat product(packed after cooking) 15580 184043 1046 9099 1 2 Tapioca flour 289 108003 54 26337 Chemically modified starch 1510 89106 243 11740 Saccharides 1239 72978 20 500

14 Abstract: Subject Foods by Country, for which Inspection Orders were Issued
Target countries/area Subject foods Inspection items Conditions All exporting countries (16 items) Pufferfish Identification of fish species Limited to lots from which different species of pufferfish have been found in on-site inspections Salted salmon roe Nitrite Manioc and its processed products (other than starch) Cyanide Thailand (26 items) Cultured shrimp and its processed products (simple processing only) Oxolinic acid Excluding products with attached certificates issued by the Thailand government concerning oxolinic acid, as separately indicated Okra and its processed products (simple processing only) EPN Excluding products exported by the exporters separately indicated Basil seeds Aflatoxin Inspection orders were issued to all exporting countries for 16 items and to 36 countries for 190 items. (As of April 1, 2009)

15 Inspection Order at Thailand 2010
products Subject Shrimp and Processed product Oxolinic acid Neptunia oleracea and Processed product Triazophos Feverweed and Processed product Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin, buprofezin Okra and Processed product EPN Mango and Processed product Chlorpyrifos Propiconazole Pandanus Odorus and Processed product Chlorpyrifos Green Asparagus Banana Cypermethrin Mangosuteen Imazalil Lemon grass Citrus hystrix Profenofos Pandanus Odorus

16 No of notifications and violations(2008)
Violations agaisnt the Food Sanitation Law China 473,343 26.9% 259 22.5% US 209,145 11.9% 140 12.2% France 179,868 10.2% Thailand 110 9.6% 128,792 7.3% Vietnam 72 6.3% Korea 110,098 Taiwan 57 5.0%

17 Violation in 2009(Thailand)
Violations categories no of Violations Aflatoxin 5 Undesignated use of Food Additives 4 Undesignated Food additives Rottenness, spoilage and molded 19 Exceeding level of Pesticide residue 18 E.coli positive ( Frozen food consumed after cooking) 7 Exceeding levels of bacterial count (Frozen food) 31 Coliform positive (frozen food, Surimi etc) 29 others total 122

18 Violations by products 2009(Thailand)
Events No of cases Frozen food(Squid) Viable count (5), coliform (1) 6 Frozen food (Shrimp) Viable count (16), E.coli (1), coliform(3) 20 Frozen fish Coliform(14), E.coli (2), viable count (2) 17 Fish meat kneated products Coliform (2) , E.coli (4), Frozen food (Meat) E.Coli (4), coliform (2) Others 16

19 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

20 Microbiological criteria (1)
Frozen fish or shellfish intended to be consumed raw microbial count: < /g product Coliform: negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN count /g

21 Microbiological criteria (2)
Oyster intended to be consumed raw - Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN/g - E. coli: <230/100 g product - microbial count: < /g product

22 Microbiological criteria for Frozen food
served after cooking and cooked immediately before freezing Aerobic 30°C <100,000 Coliforms Not detectable served without cooking served after cooking (other than those cooked immediately before freezing) <3,000,000 Escherichia coli

23 Microbiological criteria for boiled crab
Not frozen Vibrio parahaemolyticus: negative Frozen boiled crab microbial count: < /g product Coliform: negative

24 Food Additives Usage Undesignated food additives
Sulfur dioxide, Benzoic acid, Sorbic acid Undesignated food additives TBHQ, Azorubine, Polysorbate

25 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

26 Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues
【 Previous Regulation 】 【 Enforcement of Positive List System】 May ~ Pesticides, Feed Additives, and Veterinary Drugs Pesticides, Feed Additives and Veterinary Drugs Chemicals for which MRLs are established Chemicals for which MRLs are established Chemicals for which MRLs are not established Chemicals designated by MHLW 283 substances 799 substances MRLs for 250 Pesticides and 33 Veterinary Drugs Establishment of provisional MRLs for agricultural chemicals, considering Codex standards, Japanese registration withholding limits, and other standards established based upon scientific evaluation 758 substances Establishment of a certain level that is determined to pose no adverse health effects 0.01 ppm Chemicals that do not pose adverse health effects 65 substances Foods containing chemicals above the MRLs are enjoined from domestic distribution Not subject to the positive list system Foods found to contain chemicals above the level are enjoined from domestic distribution. Chemicals for which MRLs are not established Acceleration of the establishment of MRLs Basically, even foods found to contain chemicals are not enjoined from distribution. Foods containing chemicals above the MRLs are enjoined from domestic distribution.

27 Status of Violations under the Positive List System (FY 2008)
Categories Criteria Number of violations Residual agricultural chemicals New criteria 104 Uniform limits 202 Non-detection criteria 1 Conventional criteria 52 Total 359 Residual veterinary drugs 111 3 115 (For reference) Average number of violations per month before and after the Positive List System became effective Categories FY2005 (April 2005-March 2006) FY2006 (June 2006-March 2007) FY2007 (April 2007-March 2008) Residual agricultural chemicals 4.8(-) 44.7(9.4 times) 23.2(0.52 times) 29.8(1.3 times) Residual veterinary drugs 4.5(-) 23.2(5.2 times) 15.4(0.66 times) 9.6(0.6 times) Total 9.3(-) 67.9(7.3 times) 38.6(0.56 times) 39.4(1.1 times) ( ):the ratio compared to the previous fiscal year

28 Guidelines on Hygiene Control of Import Processed Foods
1. The purpose : not only to prevent contamination by poisonous or harmful substances, etc., but also to emphasize basic matters for guidance on processed foods required of importers under the Imported Foods Monitoring and Guidance Plan, to promote hygiene control of import processed foods, and to take steps to improve safety 2 Scope: for importers who manufacture and import products to be exported to Japan under direct contract with overseas manufacturers, as well as importers of processed food in general. Moreover, even importers who are not in a direct contractual relationship with an overseas manufacturer should also, through the agency of an exporter or other such concern in the exporting country, strive to confirm the matters stated in these Guidelines with said manufacturer Sec 2   Raw Material Acceptance Stages Sec 3   Product Manufacturing and Processing Stages Sec 4   Product Storage, Transportation and Distribution Stages Sect 5  Recall and Disposal, Sec 6 Education and training , record keeping

29 Cadmium

30 Epi study of adverse health effects and an indicator
Cadmium Long term exposure absorption・ metabolize β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) a low molecular weight protein as an indicator Adverse effects on Kidney proximal tubular

31 Tolerable weekly intake
Conclusion of the risk assessment by Food Safety Commission in Japan Tolerable weekly intake  Cd 14.4 ⇒7 µg/kg b.w/week

32 Current control measures for CADMIUM in food in Japan
CADMIUM Limits in Rice(brown rice),Soft drinks and powdered soft drinks are established in Japan , based on Food Sanitation Law, For rice, the limit is less than 1.0mg/kg in rice, however, rice containing more than 0.4mg/kg and less than 1.0mg/kg is bought by MAFF in order to prevent distribution in the food chain Food Limits Rice(brown rice) Less than 1.0 mg/kg Soft drink (including mineral water Source water Less than 0.01 mg/L 以下 Finish product Not detected Powdered soft drink mix

33 Codex CADMIUM standards
<Standard for contaminants in food> Codex STAN , Rev ) Food categories Limits (mg/kg) Note/remarks Cereal grains (excluding buckwheat ) 0.1 Excluding what and rice and bran and germ Wheat 0.2 Potato Peeled Pulses Excluding soya bean (dry) Root and tuber, stalk and stern vegetable Excluding potato and celeriac Leafy vegetables other vegetables(Brassica veg, Bulb veg, fruiting vege, cucurbits, 0.05 Excluding tomatoes and edible fungi Rice polished 0.4 Marine bivalve molluscs 2 Excluding oyster and scallop Cephalopods(squids and octopus) Without viscera

34 Conclusions at food standard committee in MHLW
Revised Cadmium standard in Rice (1.0ppm → 0.4ppm:from the end of February, 2011) Cadmium Standards for other food categories will not established. Request stakeholders to make efforts to reduce the levels of cadmium in foods

35 Aflatoxins

36 Risk management of Aflatoxin in food ①
Current control in Japan  In 1971, Food contained aflatoxin was regarded as adulterated food, and sales, use and distribution of such food is prohibited as a violation of the Food Sanitation Law, Article 6. In the official test methods, Aflatoxin B1 is designated as the target, and the detection limit was established at 10ppb. This value is considered as “standard”. Codex   Total aflatoxin (sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) ・peanuts for further processing ( almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for further processing):15ppb ・ almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for ready to eat:10ppb Contamination statues   ・Some foods were contaminated with both B &G group Aflatoxins.   ・In some peanut samples, levels of Aflatoxin G is higher than those of Aflatoinx B group

37 Risk management of Aflatoxin in food 2
Risk assessment based on epidemiological investigations, liver cancer risk of life -time oral exposure of Aflatoxin B1 at 1ng/kg b.w./day HBsAg positive; 0.3 cases /100,000 population /year HBsAg negative: 0.01 cases /100,000 population /year Results of exposure assessment, differences of risks of liver cancer under deferent scenarios are negligible: current control at Aflatoxin B1 at 10ppb total afratoxin at 8, 15, 20ppb  Afratoxin intake from food should be reduced as low as reasonablely achievable The Conclusion of the MHLW Food Stanadrd Committee   The regulatory target Aflatoxin should be amended as the total aflatoxin with the detection limit at 10ppb.

38 Food Safety Commission
Diagram 2 NEW MEASURES FOR "FOOD SAFETY" ~RISK ANALYSIS~ RISK ASSESSMENT RISK MANAGEMENT Food Safety Commission MHLW MAFF ・ To conduct a risk assessment. ・ To recommend that agencies in charge of risk management implement necessary measures for food safety, based on the risk assessment results. ・ To monitor the risk management by related agencies. ・ To collect and analyze domestic and international information on food safety hazards. ・ To comprehensively manage total risk communication including activities of the risk management agencies. ・Quarantine Stations ・Regional Bureaus of Health and Welfare ・Health Centers, etc. Risk management for food safety ・ Regional Agricultural Administration Offices ・ Centers for Food Quality, Labeling and Consumer Services, etc. Risk management for agricultural, livestock, and fishery production. Food Safety Basic Law Food Sanitation Law, etc. Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law, etc. RISK COMMUNICATION ・Disclosure of information on food safety ・Securing consumers’ opportunities to express their opinions

39 Conclusions Application of Risk Analysis framework
Risk assessment conducted by Food Safety Commission Risk communication Taking Codex standards into account Contribution to the Codex standard setting activities Toward harmonization with ISO microbiological test methods Farm to table approach Identify and implement appropriate control measures along entire food chain

40 MHLW Import food website at
Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues in Foods


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