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1 IMPORT FOOD INSPECTION SYSTEM In Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National Institute of Public Health, Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National.

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Presentation on theme: "1 IMPORT FOOD INSPECTION SYSTEM In Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National Institute of Public Health, Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 IMPORT FOOD INSPECTION SYSTEM In Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National Institute of Public Health, Japan Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph. D National Institute of Public Health, Japan

2 2 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues, Cadmium and Aflatoxin

3 3 Self-supply rate for Food <60 %(calorie base > year ’ 65 ’ 75 ’ 85 ’ 90 ’ 95 ’ 00 ’05’05 ’07’07 ’08’08 Rice 494 9595 Wheat 515 711 1414 1414 1414 Bean 2598 8 5777 9 Vegetable 979 8181 8282 Fruits 363 141 4040 4141 Meat 070 454 5656 5656 Egg 494 96 Milk product 787 666 7070 Fish 979 151 Sugar 232 333 3838 self-sufficiency rates 848 141 Ite m

4 4 Cases & Weights of Imported Foods ( Nationwide ) x Cases Million Tones 1.86 milli 34 milli tones

5 5 Arrival of the cargo Submission of import notifications Meat Inspect. Certificate Document inspection Onsite inspection compliance Custom No-com- pliance ship back discard Examination order Monitoring NO examination Acceptance of the notification Inspection of imported food the quarantine station

6 Overview of the System of Inspections Conducted at the Time of Importation Comprehensive import ban Inspection order Enhanced monitoring Monitoring inspection Administrative Inspection etc. etc. Probability of violationInspection rate High Low ※ Number of total(gross) of monitoring inspections is 83,951 cases 95,490 49,133 70, ,9171,759,123 =11.0% FY2008 Total number of inspections/Num ber of import notifications

7 7 Annual Monitoring Plan ( 2010 Fiscal Year ) Foods, etc. Analyses Samples Animal food (Meat, Milk, Egg) Animal drugs, Pesticides, Food standards, etc. 4,880 Animal processed food Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food standards, etc. 7,510 Sea food (Fish and Shellfish) Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food standards, etc 6,570 Processed sea food Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food standards, etc 12,360 Agricultural products (Grain, Vegetable, Fruit) Pesticides, Aflatoxin, GMO 22,280 Processed agricultural products Pesticides, Food Additives, Food standards, Aflatoxin, GMO, etc 17,150 Miscellaneous Food Additives, Food standards, etc. 4,800 Drinks Food Additives, Food standards, etc. 2,200 Food Additives, utensils, etc. Food standards, etc. 2,250 50% monitoring foods 5,000 Total 85,000

8 8 Number of notifications, analyses and rejections Notifications Year ratio Weight No. of total analyses Analysis sites No. rejected cases Gov. labPrivate labOfficial Foreign lab 件% 1000 tones *1 件件*2 件件件 ,986-12,765-5, ,507-20,775-21,461--1, , ,66539,81714,89226,0541, ,052, ,268141,12860,78774,63419, , ,034112,28152,244 63,789 (37,484) 3,7961, ,864, ,782189,36266, ,083 (73,589) 7, ,797, ,261198,54258, ,846 (94,598) 5,8181, ,759, ,551193,91758, ,878 (95,490) 6,2081,150 *1 行政検査、指定検査機関検査、外国公的検査機関検査の合計から重複を除いた数値 *2 ( )内の数値は、指定検査機関検査のうちの命令検査の件数

9 9 Inspection System for Imported Foods, etc. Food Inspectors ・・・・・・・・ 383 persons Notification Sites for Imported Foods ・・・・・・31 sites Laboratory facilities Two Major Laboratories: Yokohama (Eastern Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious Diseases) Kobe (Western Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious Diseases) Six Minor Laboratories: Tokyo, Narita A.P., Nagoya, Osaka, Kansai A.P., Fukuoka

10 10 Notification Site Map for Imported Foods, etc.

11 11 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

12 12 Statistics on Food Import in Japan from Thailand

13 Top 5 items from Thai land NotificationAnalysisViolation NumberWeight(t ) NumberWeight(t ) NumberWeight(t) Non-glutinous rice Cooked meat product ( packed after cooking) Tapioca flour Chemically modified starch Saccharides

14 Abstract: Subject Foods by Country, for which Inspection Orders were Issued Target countrie s/area Subject foodsInspection itemsConditions All exporting countries (16 items) Pufferfish Identification of fish species Limited to lots from which different species of pufferfish have been found in on-site inspections Salted salmon roeNitrite Manioc and its processed products (other than starch) Cyanide Thailand (26 items) Cultured shrimp and its processed products (simple processing only) Oxolinic acid Excluding products with attached certificates issued by the Thailand government concerning oxolinic acid, as separately indicated Okra and its processed products (simple processing only) EPN Excluding products exported by the exporters separately indicated Basil seedsAflatoxin Inspection orders were issued to all exporting countries for 16 items and to 36 countries for 190 items. (As of April 1, 2009) Inspection orders were issued to all exporting countries for 16 items and to 36 countries for 190 items. (As of April 1, 2009)

15 Inspection Order at Thailand productsSubject Shrimp and Processed product Oxolinic acid Neptunia oleracea and Processed product Triazophos Feverweed and Processed product Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin, buprofezin Okra and Processed product EPN Mango and Processed product Chlorpyrifo s Mango and Processed productPropiconazole Pandanus Odorus and Processed product Chlorpyrifos Green AsparagusEPN BananaCypermethrin MangosuteenImazalil Lemon grassEPN Citrus hystrix Profenofo s Pandanus Odorus

16 16 No of notifications and violations(2008) No of NotificationsViolations agaisnt the Food Sanitation Law China473, %China % US209, %US % France179, %Thailand1109.6% Thailand128,7927.3%Vietnam726.3% Korea110,0986.3%Taiwan575.0%

17 17 Violation in 2009 ( Thailand ) Violations categoriesno of Violations Aflatoxin5 Undesignated use of Food Additives4 Undesignated Food additives4 Rottenness, spoilage and molded19 Exceeding level of Pesticide residue18 E.coli positive ( Frozen food consumed after cooking) 7 Exceeding levels of bacterial count (Frozen food) 31 Coliform positive (frozen food, Surimi etc)29 others5 total122

18 18 Violations by products 2009 ( Thailand ) ProductsEvents No of cases Frozen food(Squid) Viable count (5), coliform (1)6 Frozen food (Shrimp) Viable count (16), E.coli (1), coliform(3) 20 Frozen fish Coliform(14), E.coli (2), viable count (2) 17 Fish meat kneated products Coliform (2), E.coli (4),6 Frozen food (Meat) E.Coli (4), coliform (2) 6 Others16

19 19 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

20 20 Microbiological criteria (1) Frozen fish or shellfish intended to be consumed raw microbial count: < /g product Coliform: negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN count /g

21 21 Microbiological criteria (2) Oyster intended to be consumed raw - Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN/g - E. coli: <230/100 g product - microbial count: < /g product

22 22 Microbiological criteria for Frozen food served after cooking and cooked immediately before freezing Aerobic 30°C  Coliforms Not detectable served without cooking Aerobic 30°C  Coliforms Not detectable served after cooking (other than those cooked immediately before freezing) Aerobic 30°C  Escherichia coli Not detectable

23 23 Microbiological criteria for boiled crab Not frozen Vibrio parahaemolyticus: negative Frozen boiled crab microbial count: < /g product Coliform: negative Vibrio parahaemolyticus: negative

24 24 Food Additives Usage Sulfur dioxide, Benzoic acid, Sorbic acid Undesignated food additives TBHQ, Azorubine, Polysorbate

25 25 Table of Contents Overview of the imported food, inspection system for imported food Overview of the food exported from Thailand and food safety issues Overview of current food safety criteria New system: Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues

26 26 Pesticides, Feed Additives, and Veterinary Drugs Pesticides, Feed Additives, and Veterinary Drugs Chemicals for which MRLs are established Chemicals for which MRLs are not established Basically, even foods found to contain chemicals are not enjoined from distribution. 【 Previous Regulation 】 MRLs for 250 Pesticides and 33 Veterinary Drugs Foods containing chemicals above the MRLs are enjoined from domestic distribution Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues Pesticides, Feed Additives and Veterinary Drugs Chemicals for which MRLs are not established Chemicals for which MRLs are established Foods containing chemicals above the MRLs are enjoined from domestic distribution. Foods found to contain chemicals above the level are enjoined from domestic distribution. Establishment of provisional MRLs for agricultural chemicals, considering Codex standards, Japanese registration withholding limits, and other standards established based upon scientific evaluation 758 substances Acceleration of the establishment of MRLs Chemicals designated by MHLW Chemicals that do not pose adverse health effects 65 substances Not subject to the positive list system 【 Enforcement of Positive List System 】 May ~ Establishment of a certain level that is determined to pose no adverse health effects 0.01 ppm 799 substances 283 substances

27 Status of Violations under the Positive List System (FY 2008) CategoriesCriteria Number of violations Residual agricultural chemicals New criteria 104 Uniform limits 202 Non-detection criteria 1 Conventional criteria 52 Total359 Residual veterinary drugs New criteria 1 Uniform limits 0 Non-detection criteria 111 Conventional criteria 3 Total115 Categories FY2005 (April March 2006) FY2006 (June March 2007) FY2007 (April March 2008) Residual agricultural chemicals 4.8 (-) 44.7 ( 9.4 times ) 23.2 ( 0.52 times ) 29.8 ( 1.3 times ) Residual veterinary drugs 4.5 (-) 23.2 ( 5.2 times ) 15.4 ( 0.66 times ) 9.6 ( 0.6 times ) Total 9.3 (-) 67.9 ( 7.3 times ) 38.6 ( 0.56 times ) 39.4 ( 1.1 times ) (For reference) Average number of violations per month before and after the Positive List System became effective (For reference) Average number of violations per month before and after the Positive List System became effective ( ): the ratio compared to the previous fiscal year

28 Guidelines on Hygiene Control of Import Processed Foods  1. The purpose : not only to prevent contamination by poisonous or harmful substances, etc., but also to emphasize basic matters for guidance on processed foods required of importers under the Imported Foods Monitoring and Guidance Plan, to promote hygiene control of import processed foods, and to take steps to improve safety  2 Scope: for importers who manufacture and import products to be exported to Japan under direct contract with overseas manufacturers, as well as importers of processed food in general. Moreover, even importers who are not in a direct contractual relationship with an overseas manufacturer should also, through the agency of an exporter or other such concern in the exporting country, strive to confirm the matters stated in these Guidelines with said manufacturer  Sec 2 Raw Material Acceptance Stages  Sec 3 Product Manufacturing and Processing Stages  Sec 4 Product Storage, Transportation and Distribution Stages  Sect 5 Recall and Disposal, Sec 6 Education and training, record keeping 

29 Cadmium 29

30 Epi study of adverse health effects and an indicator Cadmium Long term exposure β2-microglobulin ( β 2 -MG ) Adverse effects on Kidney proximal tubular absorption ・ metabolize 30 a low molecular weight protein as an indicator

31 Conclusion of the risk assessment by Food Safety Commission in Japan Tolerable weekly intake Cd 14.4 ⇒ 7 µg/kg b.w/week Cd 14.4 ⇒ 7 µg/kg b.w/week 31

32 Current control measures for in food in Japan Current control measures for CADMIUM in food in Japan  CADMIUM Limits in Rice ( brown rice ),Soft drinks and powdered soft drinks are established in Japan, based on Food Sanitation Law,  For rice, the limit is less than 1.0mg/kg in rice, however, rice containing more than 0.4mg/kg and less than 1.0mg/kg is bought by MAFF in order to prevent distribution in the food chain FoodLimits Rice ( brown rice ) Less than 1.0 mg/kg Soft drink ( including mineral water Source water Less than 0.01 mg/L 以下 Finish productNot detected Powdered soft drink mix Not detected 32

33 Codex standards Codex CADMIUM standards < Standard for contaminants in food > Codex STAN , Rev ) 。 Food categories Limits (mg/kg) Note/remarks Cereal grains ( excluding buckwheat ) 0.1 Excluding what and rice and bran and germ Wheat 0.2 Potato 0.1 Peeled Pulses 0.1 Excluding soya bean (dry) Root and tuber, stalk and stern vegetable 0.1 Excluding potato and celeriac Leafy vegetables 0.2 other vegetables ( Brassica veg, Bulb veg, fruiting vege, cucurbits, 0.05 Excluding tomatoes and edible fungi Rice polished 0.4 Marine bivalve molluscs 2 Excluding oyster and scallop Cephalopods ( squids and octopus ) 2 Without viscera 33

34 Conclusions at food standard committee in MHLW Revised Cadmium standard in Rice ( 1.0ppm → 0.4ppm : from the end of February, 2011 ) Cadmium Standards for other food categories will not established. Request stakeholders to make efforts to reduce the levels of cadmium in foods 34

35 Aflatoxins 35

36 Risk management of Aflatoxin in food ①  Current control in Japan In 1971, Food contained aflatoxin was regarded as adulterated food, and sales, use and distribution of such food is prohibited as a violation of the Food Sanitation Law, Article 6. In the official test methods, Aflatoxin B1 is designated as the target, and the detection limit was established at 10ppb. This value is considered as “standard”.  Codex Total aflatoxin ( sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2 ) ・ peanuts for further processing ( almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for further processing ): 15ppb ・ almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for ready to eat : 10ppb  Contamination statues ・ Some foods were contaminated with both B &G group Aflatoxins. ・ In some peanut samples, levels of Aflatoxin G is higher than those of Aflatoinx B group 36

37 Risk management of Aflatoxin in food 2  Risk assessment based on epidemiological investigations, liver cancer risk of life - time oral exposure of Aflatoxin B1 at 1ng/kg b.w./day HBsAg positive; 0.3 cases /100,000 population /year HBsAg negative: 0.01 cases /100,000 population /year Results of exposure assessment, differences of risks of liver cancer under deferent scenarios are negligible: current control at Aflatoxin B1 at 10ppb total afratoxin at 8, 15, 20ppb Afratoxin intake from food should be reduced as low as reasonablely achievable  The Conclusion of the MHLW Food Stanadrd Committee T he regulatory target Aflatoxin should be amended as the total aflatoxin with the detection limit at 10ppb. 37

38 38 RISK COMMUNICATION ・ Disclosure of information on food safety ・ Securing consumers’ opportunities to express their opinions RISK ASSESSMENTRISK MANAGEMENT ・ To conduct a risk assessment. ・ To recommend that agencies in charge of risk management implement necessary measures for food safety, based on the risk assessment results. ・ To monitor the risk management by related agencies. ・ To collect and analyze domestic and international information on food safety hazards. ・ To comprehensively manage total risk communication including activities of the risk management agencies. Food Safety Commission ・ Quarantine Stations ・ Regional Bureaus of Health and Welfare ・ Health Centers, etc. Risk management for food safety MHLW ・ Regional Agricultural Administration Offices ・ Centers for Food Quality, Labeling and Consumer Services, etc. Risk management for agricultural, livestock, and fishery production. MAFF Food Safety Basic Law Food Sanitation Law, etc. Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law, etc. Diagram 2

39 ConclusionsConclusions  Application of Risk Analysis framework  Risk assessment conducted by Food Safety Commission  Risk communication  Taking Codex standards into account  Contribution to the Codex standard setting activities  Toward harmonization with ISO microbiological test methods  Farm to table approach  Identify and implement appropriate control measures along entire food chain 39

40 40 MHLW Import food website at Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues in Foods 28/index.html


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