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Newspaper Editorial Excerpt “These immigrants are an invasion of venomous reptiles…long-haired, wild-eyed, bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches,

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Presentation on theme: "Newspaper Editorial Excerpt “These immigrants are an invasion of venomous reptiles…long-haired, wild-eyed, bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Newspaper Editorial Excerpt “These immigrants are an invasion of venomous reptiles…long-haired, wild-eyed, bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches, who never did a day’s work in their lives”

2 The Rising Tide of Immigration “In America, the streets are paved with gold”

3 Periods of Immigration: Colonial Immigration (1600s- 1700s) 1st Wave(1880s-1920) 2nd Wave (1965-present)

4 Why Leave? (1800s) “Push” Factors: –Econ decline Europe –Ag. Econ. V. Industr. –Lack of landownership –Rising pop. (underfed, disease) –Natural disasters –Political & ReligiousPersecution –Jews in Russia (restricted jobs, land, attending school) –3/4 Russian Jews came to America –1/3 of European Jews came to America –Greeks, Turks, Poles also left “Pull” Factors: –Family descriptions –Businesses sought cheap labor –Land, opportunity

5 Going to America

6 2.2A Embarking flood of immigrants million Why go to America? –Wars –Famine –Religious persecution –overpopulation

7 2.2B Steerage Cheap, least comfortable Cost a life savings Who came? –Poor farmers –Schoolmasters –Artisans –Young people

8 Travel Conditions 8-14 days No windows, 6-8’ high ceilings 1 toilet for 47 to 1,000 passengers Straw mattresses Smallpox, typhoid spread rapidly

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10 2.2C Ellis Island Main processing point 1890 made into imm. Station By 1910, 6 million came through there 1954 closed Made a monument in 1960s

11 2.2D Immigration Inspection Quarantine inspector boarded to check for life-threatening diseases Higher class - briefly questioned on board and then were free to disembark

12 Steerage Class Rigorous inspection Tag or pin Groups of 30 ckecked in belongings Upstairs to Great Hall Received inspection card Medical examination 45 minutes Eye exam, physical probs

13 Processing

14 Chalk marks on immigrants for ailments

15 Waiting Hall Held 5,000 people Tagged, waited for processing Tagged for language Chalk marks with medical probs. 2-3 hours wait 2-3 minute interview

16 Legal Inspection Noted tag # Asked 32 questions with help of interpreter –Marital status –Purpose for coming –Ever in prison –More than $30 2% sent back

17 Americanization Movement A program of education about immigrants new country Schools and voluntary associations provided education in subjects, history, etiquette, English etc… Designed to assist in assimilating into American culture

18 City Dwelling Majority settled in big cities 1900: –2/3 of foreign-born lived in cities –4/5 residents of NYC were either immigrants or children of immigrants

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20 2.2G Italian Neighborhood “culture shock” Settled in ethnic neighborhoods (enclaves) –Familiar language, customs, food, religion –Support network –Slowed assimilation

21 2.2H “5-cents-a-spot” lodging Jacob Riis “In a room not 13’ either way slept 12 men and women, 2 or 3 in bunks set in sort of alcove, the rest on the floor. A kerosene lamp burned dimly in the fearful atmosphere”

22 2.2H Living Conditions Lodging crowded, sometimes life-threatening New York –1,231 people living in just 120 rooms in one part of city! –Not one single bathtub in 3 square blocks! Chicago –60% newborns did not reach 1st birthdays

23 2.2H Living conditions Lack of decent lighting and fresh air Babies asphyxiated in air of own homes Sleepers rolled off of roofs, sills 40% NY immigrants stricken with TB Fires, disease, death

24 Rural Living Conditions Italians CA - vineyards, fruit farms Armenians farmed Fresno, CA Greeks sponge fishing in west Florida Polish farmed corn, wheat in Midwest European farm laborers $33/year compared to $200/year for avg. American, but “still better than the old country!”

25 2.2I Immigrant Child in Textile Factory Stockyards, coal mines, steel mills Unskilled workers 80% unskilled labor –10¢/hour ($5.50/week) –Children barely 1/2 of that –1910 avg. workweek 55 hours –12, 14, 16-hour days not uncommon –Needed $16/week, textile workers made $4/week –Garment workers 108 hours/week for $1.25/week

26 2.2I Working Conditions Dangerous work – over 35k killed (1 every 2 days!) –“Black lung”, “white lung” –Compensation rarely provided

27 Work

28 2.2J Chinese Immigrants ,000 Chinese arrived 1850s…3,000/year 1872…23,000! By % of CA pop. was Chinese! Settled on west coast Lured by “mountain of gold” in California

29 Angel Island San Francisco

30 Chinese Journey More than 1 month Chinese separated from others upon arrival Men separated from women Sent to dorms, left after 3 weeks

31 Medical examinations Some afflicted with parasitic diseases “Medically unfit” were deported After exams, sent back to dorms to await hearings on applications

32 2.2J Chinese Immigrants Took menial jobs Stuck to themselves Lived in segregated neighborhoods “if possible, avoid contact” - thought American backwards compared to Chinese Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882

33 After 1882, only merchant Chinese or relative of American citizen exempt from Exclusion Act Waited 3 weeks for interrogation Interrogations took more than an hour, asked about home villages, determined truthfulness

34 New Americans

35 Nativism Competition for jobs Accepted lower wages& poorer working conditions Used as strike breakers Increasing resentment

36 Legislation to limit Immigration Chinese Exclusion Act banned all entry into the U.S. to all chinese immigrants for 10 years Congress extended the law for another 10 years Chinese immigration was prohibited indefinitely, the law was not repealed until 1943 Gentleman’s Agreement Japans government agreed to limit immigration to the United States


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