2 Gantt Charts for project management Jeff BarrattSupply Chain and Operations ManagementDr. Tom FosterMarriott School of ManagementBrigham Young University
3 Gantt Chart Applications What is a Gantt ChartGantt Chart ApplicationsGantt Chart ExerciseGantt Chart Example
4 What is a Gantt Chart? A visual representation of a project over time Used to schedule, coordinate, and allocate the resources needed to complete a projectShows start, end, and specific target dates called “milestones”Everyone creates at least a mental timeline for a project they undertake, but physically creating a timeline forces a more thorough and well thought out plan. Gantt Charts can easily be customized. Some Gantt Charts use 3-D graphs to involve time, task, and specific resource quantities.
5 Benefits of Gantt Charts Efficiency IncreaseProject trackingSet deadlinesCommunication IncreaseCoordination IncreaseProvides motivation through schedulingEncourages creativitySet dates help envision the project at different stages. Time becomes concrete, not abstract, thus motivating the project along. As one Gantt Chart is shared between different departments vision is shared and communication and coordination increase. Creativity is created as people use new ideas in order to finish a task within a time constraint.
6 Features of Gantt Charts Easy to createFreehand Gantt chartsMicrosoft ExcelMicrosoft ProjectSmartDraw, Primavera, and other programs.Easy to modify and adjustSimple to understandMicrosoft Project seems to be the most popular of all Gantt chart software.
7 Disadvantages of Gantt Charts Activity descriptions often lack detailA lack of precedent and subsequent task relationshipsDoes not allow for uncertain situations such as late or early finish times.
8 How Can This Tool Be Used in Your Organization? Can be used for… Specific projects. Streamlining of everyday projects. Personal planning. Planning a meeting. Increasing communication and project input.Upcoming projects?Communication barriers?Time restraints?
9 Gantt Chart Fundamentals Separate tasks are listed in vertical rowsTime spans horizontally along the topEach task is represented by a bar along the time horizonGantt Charts can be made using a variety of computer programs, or by simply using freehand to graph tasks along a time axis. A vertical bar can be used to depict the current point in time, as shown just before the December 10 section.
10 How to Create a Gantt Chart using Microsoft Project Another option not here shown, but effective, is linking tasks together by precedent/follower relationships.List any resources to be usedEnter Task NameAdjust start and end timesChoose task duration
11 Exercise Water Tight Security Systems just got a bid for installing the security systemon a new government building…The government building is over 500 miles away and you want to ensure a good job to promote further business. Continued on the next slide…
12 Exercise continuedSchedule the project’s completion using a Gantt chart.Include the following steps:Test the system (0.5 days)Install the system (4 days)Order and await supplies (9 days)Evaluate facility’s security needs (4 days)Schedule installation time (1 day)Installation crew travel (2 days)These steps are in no specific order. The task will include organizing these steps into a logical order, and including any other steps you may feel necessary. Organize the tasks over time using a Gantt chart on a computer or a Gantt chart created by hand.
13 SolutionNotice the overlap of some acitivties, such as Scheduling Installaion Time and Ordering Supplies.There is no “correct” answer to this exercise, as Gantt charts can be adapted to meet specific specifications, preferences, or needs.
14 Real World Examples Government Uses Private Uses Hoover Dam construction, 1931Interstate Highway Network, begun 1956Private UsesSpecific projects such as launching a new productConstruction planning such as building a homePersonal planning
15 Medical School Application A Personal Planning Example:Medical School ApplicationHere is an example of a personal application of a student’s project of getting into a medical school. Notice that as tasks are completed they are filled in (Prepare for and take MCAT and Research schools tasks), thus tracking progress.
16 Additional Information Microsoft Office homepageAcademy of Management Journal. 2002,Vol. 45, No. 5, “Charting Time: Timelines as Temporal Boundary Objects.” Elaine K. Yakura.Cost Engineering. Vol.47/No.7 July 2005, “Effective Use of Gantt Chart for Managing Large Scale Projects.” Pankaja Pradeep Kumar, CCE.Link
17 Additional Information Cont. IEE Engineering Management. June/July “Uncharted Territory?” Alan Orr.Project Management Fifth Edition, Harold Derzner, Ph.D. PpSee also:Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)Critical path method (CPM)
18 SummaryGantt charts are visual representations of a project over time.Includes start, finish, and milestone dates.Useful in project planning and tracking.Helpful in resource communication and allocationEvery project will have a timeline. Gantt Charts improve project efficiency through the creation of a physical timeline.