2 Types of Poisons Ingested (swallowed) Through the mouth Inhaled (breathed)Through the lungsAbsorbed (contact)Through the skinInjectedThrough needlelike device
3 Ingested (Swallowed) Poisons Occurs when victim swallows toxic substanceMost poisonings happen by ingestion.Common among childrenSome substances can block airway.Analgesics are most common poisoning.Most exposures to plants are minor.
4 Recognizing Ingested Poisons Abdominal pain, crampingNausea or vomitingDiarrheaBurns, stains, odor near or in mouthDrowsiness or unresponsivenessPoison containers nearby
5 Care for Ingested Poisons (1 of 3) DetermineAge and size of victimWhat and how much poison ingestedWhen it was takenIf corrosive or caustic, have victim sip cold water or milk.Responsive victim, call Poison Control Center atCan advise if medical care is needed
6 Care for Ingested Poisons (2 of 3) Unresponsive victim, call 9-1-1Place victim in recovery position.Do not induce vomiting.Give activated charcoal if advised.
7 Care for Ingested Poisons (3 of 3) Activated charcoalBlack powder that binds to poisonDoes not absorb all drugs wellSave containers, plants, and vomit
8 Alcohol Intoxication Alcohol is a depressant. Most commonly abused drug in US.Often implicated as cofactor in other types of accidentsCan cause belligerent, combative behaviorCan be life-threateningTake condition seriously
9 Recognizing Alcohol Intoxication Odor of alcoholUnsteadiness, staggeringConfusionSlurred speechNausea and vomitingFlushed faceSeizures can also result.
10 Care for Alcohol Intoxication Look for injuries.Monitor breathing.Recovery positionCall poison control center atIf victim becomes violent, leave scene and await police.Provide emotional support.If victim is unresponsive, await EMS.Move person to a warm place.
11 Drug Emergencies Drug classifications: Uppers (stimulants)—amphetamines, cocaine, caffeineDowners (sedative-hypnotic)—barbiturates, tranquilizers, marijuana, narcoticsHallucinogens—LSD, mescaline, peyote, PCPVolatile chemicals—glue, cement, paint solvent, gasoline, spray paint, nail polish remover
12 Sympathomimetics Stimulants (“uppers”) Produce excitement Amphetamines, methamphetaminesTaken by mouth or injectedCocaineCrack
13 Recognizing Sympathomimetic Use Disorganized behaviorHyperactivityRestlessnessAnxiety or great fearParanoiaDelusions
14 Care for Sympathomimetic Users Check breathing.Call poison center orCheck for injuries.Place in recovery position.Give reassurance, emotional supportIf violent, seek safety until police arrive.Seek medical care.
15 Hallucinogens Produce changes in mood, sensory awareness Hear colors, see soundsCause hallucinations, bizarre behaviorProtect user from hurting self
16 Recognizing Hallucinogen Use Visual hallucinationsIntensity of vision and hearing
17 Care for Hallucinogen Use Check breathing.Call poison center orCheck for injuries.Place in recovery position.Give reassurance, emotional supportIf violent, seek safety until police arrive.Seek medical care.
18 Marijuana Flowering hemp plant Estimated 20 million people use marijuana daily in US
19 Recognizing Marijuana Overdose Euphoria, relaxation, drowsinessShort-term memory lossImpaired capacity for complex thinking and workDepression, confusionAltered perception of timeAnxiety, panicHallucinations
20 Care for Marijuana Overdose Check breathing.Call poison center orCheck for injuries.Place in the recovery position.Give reassurance, emotional supportIf violent, seek safety until police arrive.Seek medical care.
21 Depressants Often prescribed as part of legitimate medicine People may solicit prescriptions from several physicians.Includes:Opiates (narcotics)Sedative hypnotics (barbiturates and tranquilizers)
22 Recognizing Sedative-Hypnotic Drug Use Drowsiness, sleepinessSlurred speechSlow breathing rate
23 Opiates Pain relievers named for opium Heroin, codeine, morphine Frequently abusedAddicts may start with appropriate prescription
25 Care for Depressant Overdose Check breathing.Call poison center orCheck for injuries.Place recovery position.Give reassurance, emotional supportIf violent, seek safety until police arrive.Seek medical care.
26 Abused Inhalants Glue, gasoline, lighter fluid, nail polish Similar effects to alcoholCan die of suffocationCan change heart rhythmCan cause permanent brain damage
28 Care for Abused Inhalant Check breathing.Call poison center orCheck for injuries.Place in recovery position.Give reassurance, emotional supportIf violent, seek safety until police arrive.Seek medical care.
29 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Leading cause of poisoning death in US each yearInvisible, tasteless, odorless, colorless, nonirritating gasCan be unintentional poisoning or suicideCan occur in older car, extended time in running car, or from faulty furnaces, water heaters, kerosene heatersCauses hypoxia
30 Recognizing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (1 of 2) HeadacheRinging in earsChest painMuscle weaknessNausea and vomitingDizziness and visual changesUnresponsivenessRespiratory and cardiac arrest
31 Recognizing Carbon Monoxide Poisoning (2 of 2) Symptoms come and go.Symptoms worsen and improve in certain places and at certain times.Nearby people have similar complaints.Pets seem ill.
32 Care for Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Remove victim from environment immediately.CallEMS can give 100% oxygen for 30 or 40 minutes to reverse CO poisoning.Monitor breathing.Place unresponsive, breathing victim in recovery position.Seek medical care.
33 Plant-Induced Dermatitis (1 of 2) Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac15-25% of exposed people will have incapacitating swelling, blistersOil oozes out from plant when brushed.
34 Plant-Induced Dermatitis (2 of 2) Oil not visible on human skinSpread by direct contactCan stay active for months or yearsSmoke from burning plants can cause severe dermatitisDifficult to identify plantsLeaves grow in groups of three
35 Recognizing Plant-Induced Dermatitis RashItchingRednessBlistersSwellingThe greater the amount of skin affected, the greater the need for medical care.Onset usually occurs 1-2 days after contact.
36 Care for Plant-Induced Dermatitis Clean skin with soap and cold water as soon as possible.Apply rubbing alcohol liberally, then remove with water.Lukewarm bath and colloidal oatmealWet compresses with aluminum acetateCalamine lotion or baking soda pasteCorticosteroid ointment and oral corticosteroid
37 Stinging Nettle Plant with stinging hairs on stem and leaves Stinging hair is touchedFine needlepoint penetrates skinInjects chemical irritant
38 Recognizing Stinging Nettle Poisoning Can affect anyoneEffects limited to exposed areaImmediate responseRednessRapid, intense burningItchingReaction lasts hours, not days
39 Care for Stinging Nettle Poisoning Wash exposed area with soap and water.Apply:Cold, wet packColloidal oatmeal, hydrocortisone cream, or calamine lotionOver-the-counter antihistamine