Presentation on theme: "Biology 201 Dr. Edwin DeMont St. Francis Xavier University Chapter 22 Mammals: Specialized Teeth, Hair, Endothermy and Viviparity Part 1."— Presentation transcript:
Biology 201 Dr. Edwin DeMont St. Francis Xavier University Chapter 22 Mammals: Specialized Teeth, Hair, Endothermy and Viviparity Part 1
St. Francis Xavier University Mammals Mammals are distributed on all continents except Antarctica, and they live in all oceans. Some of the most distinctive features of mammals involve adaptations of the epidermis and the skeletal system.
St. Francis Xavier University Epidermis Notable features of mammalian skin are: - Hair (with arrector pili muscle) - Large variety of epidermal glands - Highly stratified epidermis.
St. Francis Xavier University Epidermis: Hair Hair is a unique mammalian structure. The purpose of hairs includes conservation of body heat, protection (porcupine quills), warning coloration (rump patches on antelopes), camouflage (baby deer), and sensation (whiskers or vibrissae on carnivores).
St. Francis Xavier University Epidermis: Hair Hair is greatly reduced in most marine mammals (except sea otters), as it would increase drag. Marine mammals have thick layers of fat for insulation. The sea otter has the greatest number of hairs per area of skin, important in insulating this marine mammal. Otters have 100,000 hairs/cm 2 ; compare to a dog with 9,000 hairs/cm 2.
St. Francis Xavier University Epidermis: Glands Sebaceous glands are associated with hair follicles and produce oil. (2) Large apocrine glands, which can produce products with a smell. (1) Small eccrine glands produce sweat, which functions in evaporative cooling in a few mammals Two types of sudoriferous glands :
St. Francis Xavier University Mammary Glands Mammary glands are derived from apocrine glands, and function to provide nourishment for the young. In humans, many ducts lead from the glands to a nipple and parts of the duct system are enlarged to store milk. Cattle have teats that form by the extension of a collar of skin around the opening of the mammary ducts.
St. Francis Xavier University Milk Milk contains water, butterfat, lactose, albumin and salts. The composition of milk varies with the species. In human milk, albumin is low, as well as fat (roughly 4%), resulting in slow growth. In guinea pigs, high albumin in the milk leads to a doubling of weight of the offspring every few days. The fat content of milk varies, as high as 25% in sea otters, and 50% in whales
St. Francis Xavier University Teeth One of the hallmarks of mammalian evolution has been the development of highly specialized dentition. Species vary in the number of each type of tooth and the degree of specialization. Most mammals do have highly adaptive teeth that are used in tearing grass, grasping prey or crushing bones.
St. Francis Xavier University Teeth Some mammals (i.e. humans) are omnivorous; feeding on a variety of plant and animal material. They have anterior teeth with sharp ripping and piercing surfaces and posterior teeth with flattened grinding surfaces for rupturing plant cell walls.
St. Francis Xavier University Teeth Mammals that eat plant material often have flat, grinding posterior teeth and have chisel shaped incisors for nipping or gnawing plant material. Deer (cow skull looks similar)
St. Francis Xavier University Teeth Mammals that eat plant material often have flat, grinding posterior teeth and have chisel shaped incisors for nipping or gnawing plant material. A rodent (beaver) In rodents the incisors grow throughout life.
St. Francis Xavier University Teeth Canines are typically pointed, and are particularly important to carnivores. They are usually long, conspicuous, and have one point. They are pointed for capturing and killing prey. A carnivore, the coyote Canines are very enlarged in walruses.
St. Francis Xavier University Digestive System The digestive system of mammals is similar to that of other vertebrates, but has specializations that reflects their diets. Ruminants (i.e. cows) have a four-chambered stomach to allow fermentation of cellulose by microorganisms.
St. Francis Xavier University Ruminants Ruminants (animals that ‘chew their cud’) have the most unusual modifications of their stomach. These animals eat grasses and other vegetation that has cellulose-based walls. Cellulose contains a large amount of energy but animals generally can’t digest it. Gut microorganisms can produce cellulase – an enzyme that can digest cellulose.
St. Francis Xavier University Ruminants Upper portion expands to form a large pouch – the rumen and a smaller reticulum. Lower portion contains a small antechamber - the omasum and the true stomach (abomasum).
St. Francis Xavier University Ruminants Food first enters the rumen where it encounters the microorganisms where it is partially digested (heat and churning help). Pulpy mass moved into reticulum. Moves into the omasum and abomasum where digestive enzymes encountered and digestion continues. Reswallowed food goes back to the rumen where it becomes more liquid. Mouthful regurgitated (cud) and chewed.
St. Francis Xavier University Temperature Regulation Mammals are widely distributed and some face harsh environmental conditions. Most face temperatures that require them to dissipate heat at some times and to conserve and generate heat at other times.
St. Francis Xavier University Temperature Regulation Mammals may produce heat by (1) shivering thermogenesis and (2) non-shivering thermogenesis. The second process involves the metabolism of special fat deposits called brown fat. Heat production is effective in thermoregulation because mammals can conserve heat several different ways: (1) insulated by hair and/or fat deposits and (2) with the use of heat exchangers.
St. Francis Xavier University Heat conservation Countercurrent heat exchangers conserve heat in animals adapted to cold environments. In the winter lower part of a reindeer’s leg may be 10 o C while body temperature is 40 o C.