Presentation on theme: "It’s gettin’ hot in here! (Consequences of climate change) Jake and Michael."— Presentation transcript:
It’s gettin’ hot in here! (Consequences of climate change) Jake and Michael
Brief background on climate change Increasing levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have a variety of environmental effects. – Increasing temperature – Ocean acidification – Ice melts – Extreme weather events
What effects might these changes have on plant and animal life?
Direct physical/physiological effects Habitat loss Range shifts New hybrids Changes in species interactions (predator/prey, parasite/host, competitors) Life cycle changes
Physical/physiological effects Warmer temperatures can have direct impacts on organisms health (over-heating) Ocean acidification can have a direct negative impact on marine life Temperature dependent sex determination
Example: Coral Rising ocean temperature results in coral reef bleaching, where corals expel the mutualistic colorful algae that live within them Ocean acidification makes it more difficult for corals to build their calcium based skeletons, resulting in slower growth
Example: Turtles/Tortoises Many species have temperature dependent sex determination Warmer temperatures result in a higher ratio of female offspring – Unseasonably warm temperatures in FL cause loggerhead turtles to produce ~90% females temp % Male
Habitat loss As the climate changes habitat may change in such a way that makes it unusable for certain species.
Example: Polar bears Sea ice is shrinking and moving farther apart resulting in less hunting ground and making hunting more dangerous Warming temperatures cause ice to freeze later in fall and melt earlier in spring resulting in a narrower hunting period
Example: Mangroves Mangrove ecosystems provide crucial breeding and nursery areas for many different species of fish and other wildlife Rising sea level and changing salinity destroy mangrove ecosystems
Range shifts Plants and animals shift or expand their ranges to remain in suitable habitat – Optimal temperature – Following food sources Shifts can occur both in latitude or elevation
Example: Pika Small mammal adapted to cold habitats in mountainous areas Warming temperatures forcing the pika to higher and higher elevations where it is cooler
New hybrids As populations move into new habitats they can come in contact and hybridize with different species. I love you!
Example: Arctic mammals Melting arctic ice removes barrier that previously separated species. Without the barrier new hybrids are forming. – Polar bear + Grizzly bear = Grolar bear – Narwhal + Beluga – Right whale + Bowhead whale
Species interactions Shifting ranges can expose populations to new predators, parasites, or competitors. Changing conditions may alter already existing interactions – eg. warmer temp can speed up parasite life cycle leading to faster growth and higher rates of transmission
Example: Frogs and fungi Chytrid fungus damages frog populations Global warming increases cloud cover Causes daytime cooling and night time warming Microclimate shifts to growth optimum for chytrid Allows expansion into previously unaffected altitudes
Example: Arctic fox and red fox Warmer temp allows red fox to expand northward into arctic fox range Red fox can act as both a new competitor and as a predator of arctic foxes
Life cycle changes Warming temperatures can alter the timing of a species’ life cycle which can interfere with a variety of biotic and abiotic interactions
Example: Hibernating Animals Warming winter temperatures is causing some animals such as marmots, chipmunks, and brown bears to reduce or completely skip hibernation Can lead to winter starvation if food is not abundant enough
The Extreme Polar Plunge Ice platforms are shrinking and moving farther apart Polar bears have to swim farther and farther to locate suitable hunting locations Increasing amount of open water between shore and sea ice results in rougher waves making swimming more dangerous
Blinding Nemo! Ocean acidification interferes with clownfish senses making it harder for juveniles to find anemones Without anemone mutualism clownfish are very vulnerable to predators
What’s wrong with Bullwinkle? Warmer temps have allowed deer to move into moose territory Deer bring parasites that harm moose Infected moose are weakened and lethargic Can you go away? You’re making me sick.