Ice Ages Long period of cooling Huge ice masses form and extend from the Earth’s polar regions. They covered much of the planet’s surface Glaciers After the ice age the glaciers melt. Ice age = lower sea levels After ice age = rise in sea levels 5 major ice ages most recent was 10,000 – 12,000 years ago What causes a glacier to form and melt?
El Niño Warm, nutrient-poor water flows southward along the coast of South America. Every year around December for a few weeks When it lasts for several months we call it El Niño Effects climate and economics. How? Change in water temp and nutrient content affect survival of fish Less fish in water = less fish to catch Less fish means less fish byproduct (fish meal) = food for poultry
Changes in the Atmosphere Changes in the Earth’s atmosphere have resulted from organic and volcanic activities Before Life Atmosphere consisted of gases like water vapor, carbon dioxide and sulfur. (volcanic eruptions) Organisms evolved that could combine H 2 O, CO 2 and sunlight to produce food Photosynthesis - - - > Oxygen into atmosphere O2, H 2 O vapor, CO 2 and N have been cycling in the atmosphere and organisms for about 3.5 billion years Some of the Earth’s carbon is being stored in the bodies of living and dead organisms. (Fossil Fuels) Burning releases Carbon into the atmosphere and May influence the temperature of Earth Greenhouse Effect. (Human impact) Loss of Ozone Increased pollution of troposphere Volcanoes (Natural impact)
Needs of Organisms 3.2 Depend on the environment for everything they need to live Common needs of Organisms Water Energy Living space Suitable climate The specific needs of an organism define the environment in which it must live and its role in the ecosystem
Water Presence of fresh water is one of the most important factors in the ability of land to support life. Needed for Plants to grow Plants and water are both needed for animals to survive Amount of rainfall directly affects the life in the area. How? What about fish? Affected by water quality. Temp, nutrients, dissolved oxygen other chemicals Factors interact and could cause issues
Food and Energy Almost all the energy used by living things comes from Photosynthesis Plants and algae makes food Animals and other organisms eat plants All the substances that an organism requires from food are called nutrients. Obtain by ingesting food through mouth Absorb the nutrients (fungi, protists, plants and some animals Poisons
Living Space Plants need space to get enough sunlight and spread their roots Animals need space Seek food Water Shelter Mates Territory ~ an area that is claimed as a living space by an individual or group of animals. Size is determined by the needs of the animal
Climate Most organisms can only survive within a certain range of temperatures (cold-blooded) Organisms can go Dormant Growth slows or stops and plants may loose their leaves Why do we use refrigerators? (Warm- blooded) wider range of temp tolerance and can remain active in diverse climate Uses lots of energy Some animals go into a state of hibernation Energy consumption slows (lowered metabolism)
The Ecosystem 3.3 It is a highly organized structured environment in which all parts exist in a delicate balance. Individual species Entire ecosystem
Species A group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. similar needs such as range of climate size of territory often compete for resources types of foods A specific environment in which a particular species lives is its habitat. Find appropriate: Food Shelter Temperatures Other factors needed Destruction of habitat is a serious threat.
Geographical range is the area in which a species can live depends on available sustainable habitat Polar Bear Range Mountain Lion Range
Population and Communities All members of a species that live in the same geographic area All the different populations that live and interact in the same area
An Ecosystem includes all the communities in an area, as well as abiotic factors in the environment.