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19.1 Transportation Energy Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 4/1/2010, Rev. 1.9 (321) 674-7377

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Presentation on theme: "19.1 Transportation Energy Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 4/1/2010, Rev. 1.9 (321) 674-7377"— Presentation transcript:

1 19.1 Transportation Energy Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 4/1/2010, Rev. 1.9 (321) General Issues, Rail, Air, and Sea Train from 4/1/2010: crude oil $84.67; 4/2/09: $51 The USNS Redstone supported the Apollo Mission to land a man on the moon.

2 In Other News... Microsoft Holm software to control car battery/grid management in Ford Focus States like Utah pushing back against new EPA regulations on vehicle greenhouse gases  The federal government finalized a rule today that would require a 40 percent increase in the fuel efficiency of cars and light-duty trucks and, by extension, set the first national limits on emissions linked to climate change.  Officials said the tougher tailpipe standards would save consumers money at the gas pump, reduce the nation's reliance on foreign oil and lower emissions of carbon dioxide and other climate-altering gases.  “This is a significant step towards cleaner air and energy efficiency, and an important example of how our economic and environmental priorities go hand-in-hand,” the Environmental Protection Agency's administrator, Lisa Jackson, said in a statement. Florida DoT awarded $1.5 billion for high speed rail

3 19.1 Florida High Speed Rail

4 Overview: Transportation General Issues: Do we really need to travel so much?  Internet and teleconference available now  Remember CU See me about 1992? Skype? Rail: The decline of standard rail passenger service and the advent of light rail – Will the interurban come back? Air: Competition leads to the cheapest service the customers will stand (put up with)  Wait until jet fuel doubles in cost! Fuel and baggage surcharges are added now; definitely no free lunch Sea: Leisure travel is more common than business or purposeful travel, but freight transport predominates

5 19.1 About This Presentation General Transportation Energy Rail Transport Air Transport Sea Transport Issues and Trends 19.1 Conclusion

6 19.1.1a General Comments The advent of the automobile made it possible to routinely travel farther in daily life than by horse & buggy This meant that businesses, stores, and industry that were farther away were able to still attract enough cash to make a viable income “Urban sprawl” perhaps began with a “bedroom community” that developer Levitt & Sons began in 1950 on Long Island, New York called Levittown  Essentially, one only went there to sleep, and had to travel to other places for stores, work, and school  Once cars became commonplace, one could live even farther away from business, work, and stores because one could travel readily and cheaply

7 19.1.1b General Comments The combination of distant residences and vehicle mobility led to expansion of one’s life, and urban sprawl had begun in earnest Railroads initially were short industrial links, but combined corporations’ tracks to expand in an area The expansion to the Western Territories of the United States meant that a rail service for passengers was worthwhile, and St. Louis, Missouri became the start for the long train journey westward As air travel became cheaper, the public was more inclined to journey to destinations that were too far from home for easy car travel; families were dispersing Towns and cities now became so spread out that walking was no longer efficient or convenient

8 The Florida town of Seaside (40 miles west of Panama City) is architecturally designed to facilitate walking or biking to the town center (projected pop. 2000; 1027 in 2008) Car parking is concentrated in lots around the community where people walk a few blocks from home to get to their car “Downtown” is less than a mile away from the furthest home (at 4 mph, about 15 minutes walking) The Disney town of Celebration, Florida is also modeled upon the New Urbanism concept In these communities, car travel is less needed, and most things can be bought in the town center stores New Urbanism

9 Seaside, Florida http://www.seasidefl.com/location.asp

10 Amount of Energy Devoted to Transportation Land vehicles use the majority of energy simply because there are so many of them

11 Amount of Energy Devoted to Transportation Transportation offers the best chance of reducing oil demand tonto.eia.doe.gov/energyexplained/images/char

12 a Another View

13 Relative Efficiencies One way of measuring or quantifying people transportation is by passenger-miles per gallon  A driver in a 30 mpg car achieves 1 passenger (the driver) * 30 mpg = 30 passenger-miles per gallon  If five people ride, this becomes 150 passenger-miles per gallon If 300 people fly 2500 miles on 50,000 gallons of jet fuel, this is 15 passenger-miles per gallon (but high speed is important, too) Another way is by ton-miles per gallon, which recognizes that heavy cargo vehicles carry larger loads  A fully-loaded “Hummer” may be efficient; with only one driver and no load aboard, it isn’t

14 Public vs. Private Vehicles Public transit was much more popular when private vehicles didn’t widely exist and when the price fell to be affordable to more people The mobility offered by a private personal vehicle meant that someone could go on a moment’s notice to some arbitrary destination with persons of their own choosing* As these changes occurred, there was less need for public transportation, which then became less economic Added to this was a hidden campaign in 1936 by National Car Lines (GM, Standard Oil, Firestone Tires, & Phillips Petroleum) to buy up city trolley car lines and eventually discontinue them to help sell buses The companies were convicted in 1949 in Federal Court and fined $5000 each, thus proving that crime does pay! * Opposite suggested by Weird Al’s “And Another One got on the Bus”

15 Economics of the “Last Mile” Travel A difficulty of public transit is that if one has to drive to a bus stop or train station, that distance has to be a small percentage of the driving distance; not very far While one can travel to a distant location, and if a rental car is used then, local traffic congestion still occurs In good weather, most people might walk 10 or 15 minutes, but beyond that, they want to ride in something protective In bad weather, they aren’t willing to walk in the rain, wind, hot sun, or snow much at all One is not likely to ride a bus to near one’s home and then take an expensive taxi the rest of the way home Still, in large cities, the cost of parking ($15 per day on 4/2/09) may be so great as to encourage public transit if the remaining distance is short

16 Rail Transport Rail transport owes its efficiency to steel wheels rolling on steel tracks  The lack of deformation of steel and low friction allows most of the energy to be used in changing the elevation of the train Over the last decades, rail traffic has shifted to “intermodal” freight, the huge boxes that can be placed on trucks, trains, planes or ships

17 Why were Rails Used? In the 1600s, German miners used wooden carts to haul coal out of the mines; wooden wheels on the ground were really hard to push, especially uphill loaded Someone decided to lay planks in front of the wheels so they were easier to push; but they rolled off planks a lot! If other planks were placed to help keep the wheels on the planks, they wouldn’t fall off so often! That worked, but it took a lot of planks Suppose the guiding edge were on the wheel (a flange) instead of an extra pair of planks on the ground? Now the wooden tracks could be made smaller, and the essence of rolling wheel on rail was found Oh, and iron rails/wheels last longer!

18 Short-range tracked cars for passenger service proved profitable in towns; streets were dirt  The first (NYC, 1832) were horse-drawn and called “omnibuses”; electric-powered in Richmond VA, 1887  The “trolley” is the electrical contact on the arm on top of the car that contacts the suspended power wire “A device that collects electric current from an underground conductor, an overhead wire, or a third rail and transmits it to the motor of an electric vehicle.” --- Bartleby Dictionary Trolley Cars

19 Toonerville Horse Trolley

20 Fontaine Fox Cartoons ~1917 -~

21 Toonerville Trolley This 1920 German toy led to a Fontaine Fox cartoon strip and movie shorts

22 Interurban Railroads Trolley cars riding on rails provided light transport using electricity, and these were common until auto companies bought them up and discontinued them The interurban car (top, center and right) used overhead wires for travel between towns and cities; service started to end in the 1930s and completely about

23 Interurban Railroads

24 Interurban Railroad Areas Dayton, Ohio interurban system connected to Illinois and Pennsylvania

25 “Light Rail” in Present Days San Francisco and many other cities are using light rail to “lighten” the car traffic Light rail refers to the light loads; not a freight train Light rail runs parallel to many streets and stops every few miles to serve and attract passengers

26 “Light Rail” in San Francisco CA San Francisco cars can run on restricted rights- of-way or on city streets with car and truck traffic http://www.lightrail.com/photos/sanfrancisco/sanfrancisco.htm Photos by Jon BellJon Bell

27 Air Travel Low jet fuel price led to low travel prices and casual public travel from coast to coast Specialized cargo planes were developed to carry rocket tanks (nicknamed “pregnant guppies”) Package delivery by cargo plane has become commonplace since the price is low and delivery is fast, often overnight Can carry intermodal shipping containers inside Air transportation requires energy-dense fuels (liquids) Fixed natural gas energy plants compete with CNG for cars and trucks Research is on-going with a Lear jet fueled with hydrogen from two large high-pressure vessels running lengthwise over the passenger compartment ― a dubious location

28 Sea Transport Sea transport has also changed to carry intermodal containers Ships travel in displacement mode, pushing the water aside rather than skimming over it Nuclear Ship Savannah (middle) sailed ; now is a museum in Charleston SC Liquid natural gas (LNG) is often carried in spherical tanks to minimize heat gain and evaporation

29 Intermodal Shipping Container Fits ships, trucks, trains, or sets on ground

30 Issues and Trends Radical shifts in jet fuel costs could lead to changes in long distance travel The convenience and time savings of commercial air travel will continue to be balanced against the cost Changes in fuel to liquid hydrogen, for example, may increase the number of stops in long flights, and passengers may reconsider if they really want to go so far and take so long The Internet connectivity is leading to virtual meetings to avoid the costs of travel, which include labor costs unless a company can pressure salaried employees to fly at night or on weekends for free [Watch out!]  Employees who don’t want to lose personal time will lobby for virtual meetings so they can stay home

31 19.1 Conclusion: Transportation Changes in lifestyles have led to a highly mobile US society Public transportation declined as more people drove a car and were disinclined to wait for a bus or a train In high density areas, exorbitant parking charges ($17/day at New York City Days Inn % tax), traffic delays, and convenient trains or light rail shift public use back to public transportation Long-haul trains, ships, and barges carry profitable freight, having a decline in passenger travel Still, in the short-term, ships carry tourists, as do AMTRAC trains; Cape Canaveral hosts cruise lines The heavily congested Northeast US has the most use of fast Acela trains for commuting to work or school

32 Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof Array Questions?

33 References: Books Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN (my preferred text) Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, , TJ807.9.U6B76, ’4’0973. Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991 Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., , TJ820.G57, 621.4’5 Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN , TK1541.P , ’2136 Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN Texter, [MIT]

34 References: Websites, etc. New Urbanism Seaside, Florida mining Tramway engineering History of trolleys Weird Al Yanovich Light rail systems trolley definition Trains and subsidies _________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population solstice.crest.org/ dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection.html

35 The City of New Orleans by Steve Goodman Riding on the City of New Orleans, Illinois Central Monday morning rail Fifteen cars and fifteen restless riders, Three conductors and twenty-five sacks of mail. All along the southbound odyssey The train pulls out at Kankakee Rolls along past houses, farms and fields. Passin' trains that have no names, Freight yards full of old black men And the graveyards of the rusted automobiles. CHORUS: Good morning America how are you? Don't you know me I'm your native son, I'm the train they call The City of New Orleans, I'll be gone five hundred miles when the day is done. Dealin' card games with the old men in the club car. Penny a point ain't no one keepin' score. Pass the paper bag that holds the bottle Feel the wheels rumblin' 'neath the floor. And the sons of pullman porters And the sons of engineers Ride their father's magic carpets made of steel. Mothers with their babes asleep, Are rockin' to the gentle beat And the rhythm of the rails is all they feel. CHORUS Nighttime on The City of New Orleans, Changing cars in Memphis, Tennessee. Half way home, we'll be there by morning Through the Mississippi darkness Rolling down to the sea. And all the towns and people seem To fade into a bad dream And the steel rails still ain't heard the news. The conductor sings his song again, The passengers will please refrain This train's got the disappearing railroad blues. Good night, America, how are you? Don't you know me I'm your native son, I'm the train they call The City of New Orleans, I'll be gone five hundred miles when the day is done. ©1970, 1971 EMI U Catalogue, Inc and Turnpike Tom Music (ASCAP)


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