Presentation on theme: "Revd Ian James Going lightly Environmentally friendly travel Revd Prof Ian N. James Diocesan environment advisor School of."— Presentation transcript:
Revd Ian James Going lightly Environmentally friendly travel Revd Prof Ian N. James Diocesan environment advisor School of Mathematics, Meteorology & Physics, University of Reading.
Revd Ian James Fossil fuelled transport Fossil fuel burning: O O H H H H C C H H C H H O O O O O O O O + C O O H H O C O O C O O H H O H H O H H O butane oxygen water carbon dioxide
Revd Ian James Typical household Annual emissions: tonnes of carbon per year. Typical UK household emits 9 tonnes C per year
Revd Ian James Discussion point You have to take your family of 4 from Reading to Edinburgh. Which mode emits least carbon dioxide? 1.Driving in a car 2.Flying 3.Diesel train on the East Coast main line 4.Electric train on the West Coast main line
Revd Ian James Motor transport - Personal transport
Revd Ian James Car use Typical fuel consumption? Miles per year? Fuel type (petrol, diesel, LPG)? Reduce by 13% for diesel or LPG
Revd Ian James Rail transport - Public transport
Revd Ian James Carbon generated by a train journey Government figures suggest train is less polluting than a car. However, the calculation is very sensitive to the assumptions: occupancy, type of train, speed (IMechE figures) ModeCarTrainPlane Kg of Carbon 19 (25) 3 (7-27) 26 (13-52)
Revd Ian James Development of rail technology Internationally, rail vehicles are becoming more efficient. However, in UK since privatisation, emphasis has been on speed at expense of efficiency. Eg, Great Western mainline has replaced 4500hp HSTs with 7500hp 10-car units. Disabled access, crash worthiness, etc., have reduced no of seats.
Revd Ian James Rail travel Even government is not very sure of CO 2 emissions by trains. Energy consumption goes up rapidly as speed increases: 220mph train uses twice as much fuel as 140mph train. Efficiency depends strongly on seat occupancy Diesel much more efficient than electric
Revd Ian James Electric trains Deceptively clean! Fossil fuel is burnt at power station. Some energy converted to electricity. Pollution at power station. Further energy lost in power lines, transformers, etc., before reaching the train. Some electric trains (Swiss mountain railways!) really are green.
Revd Ian James Air transport - The fastest growing source of CO 2 pollution
Revd Ian James Growth in air transport Currently fastest growing source of CO 2 Passenger-kilometres: 1,250 million in 1990 to 2,600 million in 2000 (budget carriers) At present rate of growth, demand for flights will more than triple between now and 2030.
Revd Ian James Flying: Some popular holiday destinations Here is the extra carbon emitted taking your family of 4 on holiday: DestinationCarbon (T) Prague1.08 Tenerife2.32 West Indies5.36 Thailand7.16 Australia12.2
Revd Ian James Future developments? Can we fix the carbon pollution from transport?
Revd Ian James Developments of the car Alternative fuels? Hybrid fuels Electric cars Hydrogen power
Revd Ian James Alternative fuels LPG, diesel lead to 13% or so reduction in carbon emissions Tend to be restricted to larger vehicles Better simply to drive a smaller, fuel efficient petrol car Renewable fuels – eg., alcohol, vegetable oils – helps carbon problem, creates others
Revd Ian James Hybrid power systems Eg., Toyota Prius Hybrid petrol/electric power Base fuel is petrol – used to drive wheels or to charge batteries, whichever is more efficient Consumption of around 65mpg in urban driving Less advantage on motorways,
Revd Ian James Electric power Looks clean, but is in fact very inefficient Secondary power source – mostly generated by burning fossil fuels. Energy losses in power stations, in power transmission and in batteries. Technical problems – limited range & slow (milk floats!)
Revd Ian James Hydrogen power O O H H H H O H H O H H + Burn hydrogen in air – product is simply water vapour Perfectly clean? No natural sources of hydrogen on earth Hydrogen made from electrolysis of water to produce oxygen, hydrogen Really it is simply a way of storing electricity
Revd Ian James Sources of hydrogen? power losses power station hydrogen plant No natural sources of hydrogen on Earth Industrial production – electrolysis is only practical solution Wind farms, etc., cannot produce enough hydrogen Hydrogen is bulky – three times volume of petroleum for same energy
Revd Ian James Prospects for hydrogen power May be a realistic way of powering future road vehicles Secondary, not primary fuel: need electricity to generate hydrogen Replacing all current vehicles would hydrogen would require 50% expansion of current electricity generating capacity.
Revd Ian James ….and finally Some conclusions
Revd Ian James Re-visit discussion point You have to take your family of 4 from Reading to Edinburgh. Which mode emits least carbon dioxide? 1.Driving in a car 2.Flying 3.Diesel train on the East Coast main line 4.Electric train on the West Coast main line
Revd Ian James What can you do? Work out the fuel consumption of your car for your typical pattern of driving Carry out a journey audit. Record distance, occupancy, and priority of journey: essential, convenient or luxury. Look for savings, car sharing, etc.. Look at holidays. Look for prospects for saving miles in the air.
Revd Ian James Conclusion We can do a lot to reduce our carbon generation from travel by 10-30%. Little foreseeable prospect of technical fixes beyond this. But further reductions need real lifestyle changes. What is Christian basis of the “commuter lifestyle”