Presentation on theme: "Sophie Scholl Sources. PAROCHIAL CERTIFICATE - 1921 - in German Sophie Scholl Born: 9° May 1921 Forchtenberg am Kocher Father: Robert Scholl, occupation:"— Presentation transcript:
Sophie Scholl Sources
PAROCHIAL CERTIFICATE in German Sophie Scholl Born: 9° May 1921 Forchtenberg am Kocher Father: Robert Scholl, occupation: Mayor Religion: Lutheran Source 1:
Lutheran study Bible and Silver chain belonging to Sophie Scholl found in her prison cell 22 nd February 1943 Source 2:
The Town Hall in Forchtenberg, birthplace of Sophie Scholl Source 3:
Sophie Scholl’s badge of the League of German Girls (the Bund Deutscher Mädel ) and a photograph of her from the movement in Source 4:
People’s Court transcript: 1943 Robert Scholl, formally Mayor of Forchtenberg am Kocher You have been found guilty of criticising Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime by saying: "this Hitler is God's scourge on mankind, and if this war doesn't end soon the Russians will be sitting in Berlin." to one of your employees. You shall be imprisoned for 4 months. Source 5:
Hans Scholl (left), Sophie Scholl (center), and Christoph Probst (right), leaders of the White Rose resistance organization. Munich, Germany, 1942 Source 6:
Source7: One of six anti-Nazi leaflets calling people to resist the regime distributed by the White Rose movement.
In the Name of the German People in the action against: 1. Hans Fritz Scholl, Munich, born at Ingersheim, September 22, 1918, 2. Sophia Magdalena Scholl, Munich, born at Forchtenberg, May 9, 1921, and 3. Christoph Hermann Probst, of Aldrans bei Innsbruck, born at Murnau, November 6, 1919, now in investigative custody regarding treasonous assistance to the enemy, preparing to commit high treason, and weakening of the nation's armed security, the People's Court, first Senate, pursuant to the trial held on February 22, 1943, in which the officers were: President of the People's Court Dr. Freisler, Presiding, Director of the Regional (Bavarian) Judiciary Stier, SS Group Leader Breithaupt, SA Group Leader Bunge, State Secretary and SA Group Leader Kaglmaier, and, representing the Attorney General to the Supreme Court of the Reich, Reich Attorney Weyersberg, find: That the accused have in time of war by means of leaflets called for the sabotage of the war effort and armaments and for the overthrow of the National Socialist way of life of our people, have propagated defeatist ideas, and have most vulgarly defamed the Führer, thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the nation. On this account they are to be punished by Death. Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time. Sentencing of Hans and Sophie Scholl and Christoph Probst, February 22, Source 8:
"How can we expect righteousness to prevail when there is hardly anyone willing to give himself up individually to a righteous cause. Such a fine, sunny day, and I have to go. But what does my death matter, if through us thousands of people are awakened and stirred to action?“ Else Gebel shared Sophie Scholl's cell and recorded her last words before being taken away to be executed. Source 9:
Source 10: Guillotine in Stadelheim prison where Sophie Scholl was beheaded on the 22 nd February 1943, Munich, Germany
Barthel Schink Sources
Steinbrück of the Edelweiss Pirates and twelve of his followers were executed without trial on November 10, 1944, in front of hundreds of curious onlookers. Here is a list of the victims: Hans Steinbrück, born April 12, 1921, age 23 Günther Schwarz, born August 26, 1928, age 16 Gustav Bermel, born August 11, 1927, age 17 Johann Müller, born January 29, 1928, age 16 Franz Rheinberger, born February 22, 1927, age 17 Adolf Schütz, born January 3, 1926, age 18 Barthel Schink, born November 25, 1927, age 16 Roland Lorent, born March 12, 1920, age 24 Peter Hüppeler, born January 9, 1913, age 31 Josef Moll, born July 17, 1903, age 41 Wilhelm Kratz, born January 6, 1902, age 42 Heinrich Kratina, born January 15, 1906, age 38 Johann Krausen, born January 10, 1887, age 57 Diary entry of an Ehrenfeld resident November 10 th 1944 Source 1:
Bartholomäus "Barthel" Schink 1944 Source 2: Metal badge and symbol of the Edelweiss pirates belonging to Barthel Schink
Anti-Nazi song transcribed by a member of the Edelweiss Pirates 1942 Source 3: We march by banks of Ruhr and Rhine And smash the Hitler Youth in twain. Our song is freedom, love and life, We’re the Pirates of the Edelweiss.
Intelligence from the British Government The headquarters of the American Counter-Intelligence Corps in Frankfurt reported in May 1946 that Edelweiss activities were known throughout the British and American Zones. Source 4: Apart from gatherings on street corners, the Edelweißpiraten engaged in hiking and camping trips, defying the restrictions on free movement, which kept them away from the prying eyes of the totalitarian regime. They were highly antagonistic to the Hitler Youth, ambushing their patrols and taking great pride in beating them up. One of their slogans was "Eternal War on the Hitler Youth". As one subgroup, the Navajos, sang:
Gestapo orders 1935 Source 5: The Hitler Youth are hereby forbidden from using the Kohte (German black tent) it shall be banned until further notice. Those who use it such as the Edelweiss Pirates, are Bolsheviks (communists) and shall be punished! The question “What is an Aryan?” would be asked at the campfire, to which came the reply, “Blond like Hitler. Tall like Goebbels. Slim like Goering.” Touché.
Source 7: "Every child knows who the Edelweiss Pirates are. They are everywhere; there are more of them than there are Hitler Youth... They beat up the patrols... They never take no for an answer." Member of the Hitler Youth 1941
Source 8: People’s Court Official 1946 During the war, many Edelweißpiraten supported the Allies and assisted deserters from the German army. Some groups also collected propaganda leaflets dropped by Allied aircraft and pushed them through letterboxes. It is believed that they carried out several assassinations of Gestapo Officers
Source 9: Photograph of the Edelweiss Pirates 1930s. Note their dress. This was deliberately unlike the fashion of the Hitler Youth members. Their style was a cross between 1930s America and German folklore
Source 10: Naturally, clashes between the Edelweiss Pirates and the Nazi power apparatus grew more intense. The Nazi drive for total control led to even more irrational measures of surveillance and coercive brutality. Raids were conducted, arrests were made, young people were branded or had their heads shaved. They were sent to detention camps for "corrective education," or were submitted to criminal trials. On December 7th, 1942, the Dusseldorf Gestapo raided 28 groups containing 739 adolescents and hanged the ringleaders in public. Official record. Dusseldorf Newspaper, 1942.
Swing Youth Sources
The Swing Kids (also known as Swing Youth) are a group of jazz and swing, mainly found in Hamburg and Berlin. They are composed of 14 to 18-year-old boys and girls in high school, most of them are middle or upper-class students, but with some apprentice workers as well. They admired the British and American way of life, defining themselves in swing music and opposing the Nazi ideology, especially the Hitlerjugend ("Hitler Youth"). Source 1: British Espionage record 1939
Source 2: In this poster, a Marxist looking chap broadcasts from London, Moscow, and other enemy states, while a German listens in the darkness, trying to conceal his crime.
Source 3: Translation: Swing dancing forbidden
Teenagers favoured swing music and swing dancing, because it put a completely different, more attractive awareness of life (the "American way of life") against the HJ unity drill. Source 4:
Therefore the danced zest for life is a dangerous contradiction against propagated cultivation and order. The Swing-Youth will be fought more strictly due to the outbreak of the war. Reich orders to the Gestapo. November 1939 Source 5:
“There the youth should first be given thrashings and then put through the severest drill and set to work. It must be made clear that they will never be allowed to go back to their studies. We must investigate how much encouragement they have had from their parents. If they have encouraged them, then they should also be put into a concentration camp and (have) their property confiscated.” Himmler, 1941 Source 6: