Presentation on theme: "How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime?."— Presentation transcript:
How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime?
Degrees of opposition Non-conformity; protest; organised resistance Wearing your hoodie under your blazer Going on an anti-tuition fees march Plotting to blow up the Education Ministry because of university fees
Non-conformity; protest; resistance Put the most suitable letter against each Put a tick against anything you would risk doing, if you disliked living under Nazi rule You have 10 minutes to decide!
Which groups resisted the Nazis? Communist and Socialist Parties Protestant and Roman Catholic Clergymen Army officers and officials who agreed with them Young people: the Swing Youth; the Edelweiss Pirates and Navajos; the White Rose group Adds up to a tiny minority of the German people
Why was there so little open opposition? “Nowhere in the world can develop a resistance movement where people feel better from day to day.” (sister of protestant priest, who was executed) “What we have written and said is in the minds of all of you but you lack the courage to say it aloud.” (Sophie Scholl leader of the White Rose, at her trial) What 2 main reasons are being expressed here?
Assess their reasons, methods and success Who?Why?What?n/c,p,r?? How successful?What achieved? Communists and socialists Ch.19 Protestant Church Ch 13/19 Roman Catholic Church Ch 13 Army officersCh. 19 Swing YouthCh 15 Edelweiss Pirates & other gangs Ch 15 White Rose Group Ch. 19
Communists and Socialists Opposite end of the political spectrum – wanted to overthrow Nazi rule. (Communists wanted communism; socialists wanted democracy in Germany) Anti-Nazi propaganda Non-conformity and protest Not successful
Protestant Church Individuals such as Pastor Niemoller spoke out against Nazi policies (he also set up a breakaway church in 1934 – the Confessional Church) Protest Had little effect as they were often sent to concentration camps – Niemoller survived 8 years of this and was freed by the Allies in 1945 – not successful
Roman Catholic Church The Church as a whole did not resist the Nazis (and Pope Pius XI has been criticised for not protesting at the persecution of the Jews.) Cardinal Galen, Archbishop of Munster Protested at euthanasia policy in 1941 Protest Successful in the short-term but it was started up again later in war
Army officers Ludwig Beck, Claus von Stauffenberg Expansion into East; treatment of Jews and conquered races Beck – protest; Stauffenberg – resistance Unsuccessful – both men and 5,700 others were executed after the Bomb Plot
Swing Youth They preferred US swing music and fashionable clothes to marching to military music and wearing the HJ uniform Just didn’t conform A nuisance but didn’t achieve anything - unsuccessful
Edelweiss Pirates and similar gangs Disliked the authoritarian Hitler Youth “Eternal War on the Hitler Youth” Destroyed HJ camps; later in war helped allied airmen escape Moved from non-conformity to protest to actual resistance Big nuisance (1000s arrested in 1942 and 12 leaders hanged in 1944) but didn’t succeed in overthrowing Nazis
White Rose Group Atrocities in conquered lands Pamphlets, speeches and rallies Protest Unsuccessful – were tried and executed in 1943
h/wk Finish off any o/s work Reread the whole Nazi section – p Be ready to answer the 3 big qs about Nazi Germany: 1. Was terror the most important way that Germans were controlled? 2. Did ordinary people benefit from living under Nazi rule? 3. How successful was the opposition to the Nazis?
How successful was the opposition to the Nazis? L.1 General Answer (1-2): ‘very unsuccessful as they stayed in power’ L.2 Identifies and or describes (3-4): ‘The Edelweiss Pirates helped airmen’ ‘Archbishop Galen stopped the euthanasia policy’ L.3 Explains successful OR not successful (5-6) L.4 Explains successful AND unsuccessful (7-9) L.5 L4 plus a judgement e.g. ‘no opposition overthrew the regime; the most they managed was to be a nuisance to it’ (10)
A P,E,E paragraph Point: One failure was the White Rose Group’s protest against the treatment of the conquered people in Eastern Europe. Evidence: Hans and Sophie Scholl and other students held meetings and protests, but they were tried and executed. Nazi policy did not change Eval: This shows how difficult it was to protest
Your 10 mark essay: 2 paragraphs for each side of the argument. Choose your examples carefully. Use a range of groups, over time, and show that opposition succeeded in small ways but could not overthrow the Nazis) Sum up by saying that the Nazis were overthrown by the Russian Army, not the German people.