Presentation on theme: "How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime?"— Presentation transcript:
1 How much opposition was there to the Nazi regime?
2 Degrees of opposition Non-conformity; protest; organised resistance Wearing your hoodie under your blazerGoing on an anti-tuition fees marchPlotting to blow up the Education Ministry because of university fees
3 Non-conformity; protest; resistance Put the most suitable letter against eachPut a tick against anything you would risk doing, if you disliked living under Nazi ruleYou have 10 minutes to decide!
4 Which groups resisted the Nazis? Communist and Socialist PartiesProtestant and Roman Catholic ClergymenArmy officers and officials who agreed with themYoung people: the Swing Youth; the Edelweiss Pirates and Navajos; the White Rose groupAdds up to a tiny minority of the German people
5 Why was there so little open opposition? “Nowhere in the world can develop a resistance movement where people feel better from day to day.” (sister of protestant priest, who was executed)“What we have written and said is in the minds of all of you but you lack the courage to say it aloud.” (Sophie Scholl leader of the White Rose, at her trial)What 2 main reasons are being expressed here?
6 Assess their reasons, methods and success Who?Why?What?n/c,p,r??How successful?What achieved?Communists and socialistsCh.19Protestant ChurchCh 13/19Roman Catholic ChurchCh 13Army officersCh. 19Swing YouthCh 15Edelweiss Pirates & other gangsWhite Rose Group
7 Communists and Socialists Opposite end of the political spectrum – wanted to overthrow Nazi rule. (Communists wanted communism; socialists wanted democracy in Germany)Anti-Nazi propagandaNon-conformity and protestNot successful
8 Protestant ChurchIndividuals such as Pastor Niemoller spoke out against Nazi policies (he also set up a breakaway church in 1934 – the Confessional Church)ProtestHad little effect as they were often sent to concentration camps – Niemoller survived 8 years of this and was freed by the Allies in 1945 – not successful
9 Roman Catholic ChurchThe Church as a whole did not resist the Nazis (and Pope Pius XI has been criticised for not protesting at the persecution of the Jews.)Cardinal Galen, Archbishop of MunsterProtested at euthanasia policy in 1941ProtestSuccessful in the short-term but it was started up again later in war
10 Army officers Ludwig Beck, Claus von Stauffenberg Expansion into East; treatment of Jews and conquered racesBeck – protest; Stauffenberg – resistanceUnsuccessful – both men and 5,700 others were executed after the Bomb Plot
11 Swing YouthThey preferred US swing music and fashionable clothes to marching to military music and wearing the HJ uniformJust didn’t conformA nuisance but didn’t achieve anything - unsuccessful
12 Edelweiss Pirates and similar gangs Disliked the authoritarian Hitler Youth“Eternal War on the Hitler Youth”Destroyed HJ camps; later in war helped allied airmen escapeMoved from non-conformity to protest to actual resistanceBig nuisance (1000s arrested in 1942 and 12 leaders hanged in 1944) but didn’t succeed in overthrowing Nazis
13 White Rose Group Atrocities in conquered lands Pamphlets, speeches and ralliesProtestUnsuccessful – were tried and executed in 1943
14 h/wk Finish off any o/s work Reread the whole Nazi section – pBe ready to answer the 3 big qs about Nazi Germany:1. Was terror the most important way that Germans were controlled?2. Did ordinary people benefit from living under Nazi rule?3. How successful was the opposition to the Nazis?
15 How successful was the opposition to the Nazis? L.1 General Answer (1-2): ‘very unsuccessful as they stayed in power’L.2 Identifies and or describes (3-4):‘The Edelweiss Pirates helped airmen’‘Archbishop Galen stopped the euthanasia policy’L.3 Explains successful OR not successful (5-6)L.4 Explains successful AND unsuccessful (7-9)L.5 L4 plus a judgement e.g. ‘no opposition overthrew the regime; the most they managed was to be a nuisance to it’ (10)
16 A P,E,E paragraphPoint: One failure was the White Rose Group’s protest against the treatment of the conquered people in Eastern Europe. Evidence: Hans and Sophie Scholl and other students held meetings and protests, but they were tried and executed. Nazi policy did not changeEval: This shows how difficult it was to protest
17 Your 10 mark essay:2 paragraphs for each side of the argument. Choose your examples carefully. Use a range of groups, over time, and show that opposition succeeded in small ways but could not overthrow the Nazis)Sum up by saying that the Nazis were overthrown by the Russian Army, not the German people.