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Synapses: The Good and the Demented N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N.

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Presentation on theme: "Synapses: The Good and the Demented N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N."— Presentation transcript:

1 Synapses: The Good and the Demented N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N

2 damage or disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal ageing affected areas may be memory, attention, language and problem solving although particularly in the later stages of the condition, affected persons may be disoriented in time (not knowing what day, week, month or year it is), place (not knowing where they are), or person (not knowing who they are) Dementia: progressive decline in cognitive function

3 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N Phineas Gage

4 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N From the writings of Dr. Alois Alzheimer (1907) "...The Disease begins insidiously with mild weakness, headaches, dizziness, and sleeplessness. Later, severe irritability and loss of memory develop. Patients complain bitterly of their symptoms. At times the Disease is associated with a sudden apoplectic attack followed by hemiplegia. Increasing loss of memory and progressive clouding of mind appear later, with sudden mood changes, fluctuating between mild euphoria and exaggerated hypchondriasis; terminally the Disease leads to stupor and child-like behavior. The features differ from patients with general paralysis by apparent calmness, by an organized behavior pattern, and by general ability of reasoning..."

5 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N

6  -sectetase: non-pathologic protein  and  secretase: A  plaque forming protein

7 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N George Balanchine Charlton Heston Frederick Law Olmsted Ronald Reagan Norman Rockwell Jonathan Swift E.B. White People with Alzheimer’s

8 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N Excavation 1950 Composition 1950 Abstract Expressionism

9 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N Woman I 1952 Marylin Monroe 1954 Woman on Bicycle 1953 Woman Singing II 1966 The Visit 1967 Pirate (untitled II) 1981 De Kooning

10 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N There are five FDA-approved drugs that can control symptoms and slow the progression of AD Cognex (tacrine) Aricept (donezepil) Exelon (rivastigmine), Reminyl (galantamine) slow the metabolic breakdown of acetylcholine TREATMENT

11 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N Parkinson’s Disease James Parkinson (1817) Bradykinesia Resting tremor Postural Instability Extrapyramidal rigidity

12 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N Micrographia

13 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N General H. Guderian, Hitler's Chief of Staff, wrote, in Guderian: Panzer General that in February 1943: "Hitler's left hand trembled, his back was bent, and his gaze was fixed.“ Albert Speer, Hitler's architect and armaments minister wrote in Inside the Third Reich: "In 1944 Hitler was shriveling up like an old man. His limbs trembled, he walked stooped with dragging footsteps.....His uniform, which in the-past he had kept scrupulously neat was stained by the food he had eaten with a shaking hands." General von Cholitz, the German Commanding General in Paris said, upon meeting Hitler in 1944: "Hitler had become an old man. His face was worn..... His shoulders sagged. He cupped his left hand in his right to hide the trembling of his left arm. But above all, it was his voice that shocked me. The hard raucous voice had faded to a weak whisper.“ G. Boldt, an intelligence officer on Hitler's staff, wrote in Hitler: The Last Ten Days, An Eyewitness Account, that in February 1945: "Hitler's left arm hung limply by his side, and his left hand trembled perceptibly.....He was not the vigorous, energetic Hitler the Germans knew, the Hitler that Goebbels, Minister for Propaganda, still depicted." S. Knappe, an SS officer wrote in Soldat: Reflections of a German Soldier that on meeting Hitler in April 1945: "I was shocked by his appearance. He was stooped, and his left arm was bent, and shaking.....Both of his hands shook”

14 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N It has been proved that Adolf Hitler suffered from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Professor Max de Crinis established his diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in Hitler early in 1945 and informed the SS leadership, who decided to initiate treatment with a specially prepared 'antiparkinsonian mixture' to be administered by a physician. However, Hitler never received the mixture, this implies that the SS intended to remove the severely diseased 'Leader'. Two different character traits can be analysed in Hitler's personality: on the one hand the typical premorbid personality of parkinsonian patients with uncorrectable mental rigidity, extreme inflexibility and insupportable pedantry. On the other an antisocial personality disorder with lack of ethical and social values, a deeply rooted tendency to betray others and to deceive himself and uncontrollable emotional reactions. This combination in Hitler's personality resulted in the uncritical conviction of his mission and an enormous driving for recognition. by the time of the Normandy invasion, Hitler had suffered Parkinson's for 10 years, at which point many with the disease have cognitive problems such as an inability to process conflicting information Hitler is said to have been so convinced the Allies would attempt to invade France at Calais that he initially refused to release Panzer units that could have helped stop Allied troops in Normandy "Hitler's slowness to counterattack at Normandy may have been secondary to mental inflexibility and difficulty in shifting concepts due to Parkinsonism"

15 N E U R O D E G E N E R A T I O N

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