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Presentation on theme: "DEMENTIA JOE BEDFORD IBRAHIM ELSAFY ESCALIN PEIRIS."— Presentation transcript:


2 WHAT IS DEMENTIA? Dementia is a decline in mental abilities or cognitive functions such as memory, language reasoning, planning, recognizing or identifying people or objects. The decline is beyond what is expected from normal aging. Eventually it can impair an individuals ability to carry out everyday activities. It mostly occurs after the age of 65.

3 WHAT CAUSES DEMENTIA Some causes of dementia are treatable. These include: head injury, brain tumors infections (such as meningitis or syphilis) simple and normal pressure hydrocephalus hormone disorders (i.e. that is, disorders of hormone-secreting and hormone-regulating organs such as the thyroid gland) metabolic disorders (i.e. such as diseases of the liver, pancreas, or kidneys that disrupt the balances of chemicals in the blood) hypoxia drug abuse and chronic alcoholism. Unfortunately, most disorders associated with dementia are progressive, degenerative, and irreversible. Major degenerative causes of dementia are: Huntington’s disease HIV- related cognitive impairment Parkinson’s disease

4 TREATMENT Medication- two types of drugs used are anti- dementia and psychotropic drugs. Anti- dementia drugs mainly act as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors and work by reducing the amount acetyl choline in the brain. Psychotropic drugs help minimize behavioral problems associated with dementia. Psychotherapy- behavioral approaches are used to reduce the frequency or severity of problematic behaviors, such as aggression and socially inappropriate conduct. Environmental modifications- this is a way to increase safety and comfort whilst decreasing agitation.

5 TYPES OF DEMENTIA 1.Alzheimer’s disease- most common form of dementia. Loss of brain cells leads to the brain shrinking (atrophy). The cerebral cortex is particularly affected by atrophy. The loss of brain cells is due to a plaque and tangles which are clumps of protein. This reduces the amount of synapses between brain cells. 2.Vascular dementia- caused when the brain’s blood supply is interrupted. This can be from atherosclerosis and is common in people who have high blood pressure and diabetes. 3.Dementia with Lewy bodies- spherical structures which develop in the nerve cells. They affect two messengers chemical- dopamine and acetyl choline. This closely related to Parkinson's disease. 4.Fronto-temporal dementia- form of dementia frequently found in people under the age of 65. It is caused by the shrinking of the frontal and temporal lobe. It can affect personality, behaviour and language skills.

6 SYMPTOMS OF DEMENTIA Memory loss Language and communication difficulties. General confusion and disorientation in time and place Difficulty performing familiar activity and misplacing objects Behavior and personality changes Sudden mood swings Apathy/ lack of initiative. The individual becomes passive, sleeping more then usual and loses interest in hobbies.

7 DEMENTIA IN THE UK Dementia statistics Dementia affects 830,000 people in the UK. More than 20 million people in the UK have a friend or relative who suffers from dementia. Due to the aging population of the UK, it is estimated that by 2021 there will be 1 million people suffering from dementia in the UK. 1 in 3 people over 65 will develop dementia and two- thirds of people with dementia are women. It costs the UK economy £23 billion a year in the treatment and care of dementia patients. This is more than cancer and heart disease combined. There are approximately 60,000 deaths are year directly attributed to dementia. 80% of people living in care homes suffer from dementia or severe memory problems. Family carers of people with dementia save the UK £11 billion.

8 CONCLUSION Dementia research in the UK is still desperately underfunded. However, there has been various improvements in care for dementia patients. The national health service (NHS) provides admiral nurses for dementia patients. These specialist nurses provide practical guidance as well offering emotional support.



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