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AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 CH 31, Sec. 4 “Aggressors on the March” Austrian troops in Vienna salute as Hitler.

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Presentation on theme: "AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 CH 31, Sec. 4 “Aggressors on the March” Austrian troops in Vienna salute as Hitler."— Presentation transcript:

1 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 CH 31, Sec. 4 “Aggressors on the March” Austrian troops in Vienna salute as Hitler and his forces make their triumphal entry into the city after Germany's annexation of Austria, known as the Anschluss (Union). TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe Fascist aggression in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Summarize why British and French appeasement and American isolationism failed to stop Fascist aggression. Explain why the Soviets and Germany sign a peace pact. AGENDA: Get focused! Begin Warm-up immediately! WARM-UP: Examine the map on p. 813 of text, “Who were Aggressors in this period and where did aggression occur?” LECTURE / DISCUSSION; Packet p. TEST REVIEW FOR TOMORROW: Ch 31 TEST! Final Project is due! Morning Tutorials will begin promptly at 8:20

2 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Fearing a Communist Revolution in Italy… The King of Italy believed Mussolini and his “Far Right” was the best hope for his own troubled dynasty to survive. King Victor Emmanuel III puts Mussolini in charge of the government. Mussolini abolished democracy; outlawed all political parties but his own Fascist party; imposed Censorship; had opponents jailed; outlawed strikes; made allies with the rich industrialists. “Il Duce!” (the leader) In 1922, about 30,000 Fascists marched on Rome demanding Mussolini be put in charge of the government. After Mussolini took power, a foreign diplomat returned to England and remarked, “He’s an actor, a dangerous rascal, and possibly slightly off his head.” T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

3 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome, Hitler & the Nazis plotted to overthrow the government and seize power in Munich Germany. Hitler is tried for treason and sentenced to prison. In jail, Hitler writes “Mein Kampf” which became the plan of action for the Nazis. The Munich Beer Hall Putsch November 9, 1923 Hitler, at 34, entered a Munich beer-hall calling for a revolution against the Weimar Republic by his Nazi followers. However, when faced with the opposing Army, Hitler and the Nazis made a hasty retreat, suffering 16 casualties. Naturally, for this attempted overthrow of the government, Hitler received a ruthless sentence of five years in a tightly controlled minimum-security prison; after 9 months, he was set free on good behavior. Nevertheless, Hitler put his hard time to good use, finally sharing his ideas with the world by writing Mein Kampf, Hitler’s personal Manifesto. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

4 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Hitler wanted to control every aspect of German life and shape public opinion through propaganda. Hitler has books burned in huge bonfires. In this way Hitler gained totalitarian control – he silenced his opposition, & forced conformity (indoctrination) to Nazi beliefs alone. Under the order of Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, Nazi gangs (“Brown Shirts”) raided all libraries and gathered books considered lacking in the “family values” of the Fatherland, works of world- class authors such as Thomas Mann, Erich Maria Remarque, Jack London, H. G. Wells, Charles Dickens, Emile Zola and those of Jewish writers. In the left photo, Germans rally around a bonfire filled with confiscated books. Hitler Youth march through Nuremberg, Germany past Nazi officials. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

5 CAUSES Event EFFECTS Nazis would use the Jews as scapegoats for Germany’s troubles. Anti-Semitism was a key part of Nazi ideology. In 1933, the Nazi-controlled German government passes the “Nuremburg Laws” - laws depriving Jews of their rights. Violence against Jews increased. Kristallnacht signaled the real start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life. A synagogue is set fire the night of Kristallnacht. Above: Jewish citizens being “relocated” to the ghetto. Right: Germans pass by damaged Jewish shops the morning after Kristallnacht – Night of the Broken Glass, Nov. 9, Nazi groups attacked Jews in their homes and their businesses. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

6 20 th c. begins with Militarists Taking over Japan This Military-Industrial establishment pursues Imperialism in Asia Japanese Imperial Army and Imperial Navy assume veto power over the formation of cabinets 1903 – Japanese forces move into Manchuria prompting war with Russia – Japanese navy devastates Russian navy in surprise attack. Russia forced to sign out of Manchuria & Korea – Japan declares Korea a “protectorate” – Japan establishes island bases throughout region 1925 – Emperor Yoshihito dies. His heir, only 24 y.o. at the time << Emperor Hirohito, is a puppet of the military – Japanese military fully invades Manchuria despite objections from Japan’s own Parliament. 1. Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria? To solve its economic problems (need for oil) and protect Japanese business interests. The “occupying” army then sets up a “puppet” govt. and proceeds to provide military protection to Japanese business interests who arrive to build mines / factories – Prime Minister of Japan is assassinated by Naval officers & the military is fully in control of Japan’s future. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

7 1935 – Mussolini invades Ethiopia Why? - PROFIT: Mussolini dreams of creating an Italian colonial Empire in Africa - REVENGE: Bitter memories of Ethiopians defeating the Italian army in the Battle of Adowa in WHY NOT? League of Nations had done nothing to stop Japan’s aggressive Empire-building in Pacific. 2. Why did Britain and France take no action against Italian aggression? Both hoped to “keep the peace” in Europe – dreading another War. Read History Makers, p. 812 Ethiopian Emperor Hallie Selassie delivered an impassioned speech to the League of Nations which had done nothing to prevent Italy’s unprovoked invasion of his country. He asked, "What answer shall I take back to my people?" He said, "It is us today, it will be you tomorrow." Prophetic words considering the coming horrors of the Second World War. He concluded by telling the assembly, "God and History shall remember your judgment." It was a historic speech applauded around the world. The Emperor of Ethiopia was toasted and hailed around the world by Anti-Fascists, and Time magazine named him "Man of the Year." A week after Selassie’s speech, Britain, France, and the U.S. acknowledged Victor Emmanuel’s new title – King of Italy and Ethiopia – once again choosing to remain silent before raw Aggression. Ethiopian ruler Halllie Selassie inspects his men.

8 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of 3. Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts. They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. “Let it be resolved that upon the outbreak or during the progress of war between, or among, two or more foreign states, the President shall proclaim such fact, and it shall thereafter be unlawful to export arms, ammunition, or implements of war to any port of such beligerent states… nor shall these United States feel compelled to intercede in such international tensions as they unaffect us.” - U.S. Neutrality Act, 1935

9 Britain and France chose Appeasement – choosing to “give in to an aggressor in order to keep the peace” 1935 – U.S. Congress passes first of 3. Why did isolationists want these laws? three Neutrality Acts. They hoped to keep the U.S. out of another European War. Americans in the United States preferred Isolationism – choosing to “stay out of the tensions between other countries” Hitler’s growing military strength convinced Mussolini to seek an alliance with Germany 1936 – The two dictators sign the Rome-Berlin Axis agreement. A month later Germany reaches an agreement with Japan. Axis Powers – Germany, Japan, Italy RESULT: Strengthened by their alliance, further aggression was inevitable. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. RESULT: Such an official policy prevented the U.S. from taking an immediate stand against the Aggressors which might have prevented war’s escalation. RESULT: This policy only encouraged Japan, Italy, and Germany to keep taking more… “give ‘em an inch; they take a mile”

10 1936 – German troops move into the Rhineland. 4.What were some of the effects of appeasing Hitler after his invasion of the Rhineland? Hitler is cheered after telling the Nazi-controlled Parliament that Germany would no longer obey the Treaty of Versailles’ restrictions. He had already begun rebuilding Germany’s military. The League of Nations issued only a mild condemnation. Banners throughout Germany read, “Today Germany! Tomorrow the World!” See map of Rhineland, text p – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War. Read about “Guernica,” History Through Art, text p Strengthened his power among the Germans; - Tilted the balance of power in Europe in Germany’s favor; - Encouraged Hitler to speed up his military and territorial expansion. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

11 Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when it then became a republic. Like all European nations, Spain’s economy suffered during the Depression. In 1936, army leaders backed a Fascist-styled leader in Spain named Francisco Franco. Civil War erupted – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

12 1936 – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War. Read about “Guernica,” History Through Art, text p. 814 T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

13 Spain had been a monarchy until 1931, when it then became a republic. Like all European nations, Spain’s economy suffered during the Depression. In 1936, army leaders backed a Fascist-styled leader in Spain named Francisco Franco. Civil War erupted – Hitler & Mussolini lend troops, tanks, planes to help Spain’s Fascist leader Francisco Franco and his Nationalists in Spain’s Civil War. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. The liberal Republican government received little help from western democratic nations abroad. In fact, only the Soviet Union sent equipment to aid the legitimate republican government and also advisers to try to mediate the brutal conflict in Spain – Franco becomes Spanish dictator. Although Franco never formally allied Spain with the Axis Powers during World War II, he openly sympathized with their fascist principles.

14 1937 – Japan invades China 5. What were the immediate results of this invasion? The Chinese retreated and set up a new capital in the south; Chinese guerilla fighters continued to fight in the northern occupied area. Japanese military killed tens of thousands of captured soldiers and civilians in Nanjing. The gruesome rapes and killings of thousands in the city of Nanjing by the invading Japanese military were well- documented by invited photographers. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

15 Chinese civilians at Nanking are buried alive by Japanese troops. Japanese invaders drove more than one thousand elderly women and children to a sandbank, and buried them alive in a huge pit. All the victims' hands were tied behind their backs. Japanese commanders used killing competitions as a way to boost morale. They organized visiting and news reporters to appraise the "winner". One killing competition was reported by newspapers all over the world. "On December 16th, I went to the streets, smoke and fire flames had not yet been extinguished. The number of the dead bodies of my countrymen was terrifyingly large, especially there were many corpses of women... Eight of ten of them had their abdomens being cut open, intestines squeezed out. There were several mothers laid died together with their fetuses covered by blood... the breasts of these female bodies were either cut off or bayoneted into a mixture of flesh and blood..." Eyewitness account of brutal acts in Nanking DaGong paper, Feb. 7th, 1938 Heads of female victims in Nanking. PowerPoint; T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

16 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich – or, the new German Empire. “The Treaty of Versailles prohibited Anschluss (union of Austria and Germany). However, many German-speaking Austrians supported the idea. In March, 1938 Hitler sent his army into Austria and annexed it. France and Belgium ignored a former pledge to protect Austrian independence.” text, p. 814 T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S. Pic below: Hitler's car passes through a triumphant crowd assembled in Vienna to celebrate the Anschluss, March lebensraum (living space) for the German people

17 Immediately after the Anschluss, Nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them. At right -- Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement. Followers of former Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg wait to be transported to a German concentration camp during the mass round-up that followed the Anschluss of March Schuschnigg and his followers had tried to prevent the annexation. They were never seen again. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

18 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. “Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France. But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

19 1937 – Hitler plans to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the Third Reich. “Since WWI, Czechoslovakia had developed into a prosperous democracy with a strong army and a defense treaty with France. But 3 million German-speaking people lived in the Sudetenland - a western border region of Czechoslovakia. This heavily fortified area also formed the Czech’s main defense against Germany. Anschluss had only increased pro-Nazi feelings among the Sudeten Germans. In September, 1938 Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be given to him. The Czechs refused and asked France for help. France and Britain were preparing for war when Mussolini decided to play mediator and proposed a meeting….in Munich Germany.” text, p Why was the Munich Conference unsuccessful? The Czechs were not even invited; Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain >> thought he could appease Hitler and keep the peace; After Hitler was given Czechoslovakia it was clear he would not stop there and he now began demanding Poland. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

20 A historic example of the failings of appeasement is that of the British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, shown here upon his return from Munich with the scrap of paper that was to "ensure peace in our time!” The Munich Agreement is generally regarded as the shameful culmination of the Allied refusal to confront Nazi aggression. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

21 When the German tanks rolled into Czechoslovakia… the Czech majority mourned as it was forced to offer up the Nazi salute, “Heil Hitler!” …while the Sudeten Germans cheered Ecstatic Sudeten girls in traditional local costumes join in welcoming the German soldiers. At the end of WWII, no Jewish life in Bohemia and Moravia was left. Out of the 90,000 Czech Jews more than 72,000 were deported to Auschwitz immediately. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

22 A historic example of the failings of appeasement is that of the British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, shown here upon his return from Munich with the scrap of paper that was to "ensure peace in our time!” The Munich Agreement is generally regarded as the shameful culmination of the Allied refusal to confront Nazi aggression. One member of British Parliament was furious at what Chamberlain had done to the Czechs at the Munich Conference: “You had a choice between war and dishonor and you chose dishonor. You shall have war." That Parliament member was Winston Churchill who will become Britain’s next Prime Minister and carry the country through WWII. PowerPoint; T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S.

23 The Secret Protocol was the agreement between the Nazis and Soviets about what would take place the moment Hitler invaded Poland. For the Soviets, for agreeing to not join the possible future war, Germany was giving the Soviets the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). Poland was also to be divided between the two. The new territories gave the Soviet Union the buffer (in land) that it wanted to feel safe from an invasion from the West. For the Nazis, when attacking Poland on September 1, 1939, the Soviets promised not to interfere. Two days later, the British declared war on Germany and World War II had begun. On September 17, the Soviets rolled into eastern Poland to occupy their "sphere of influence" designated in the secret protocol. 8. Why did Stalin sign an agreement with Fascist Germany, once a bitter enemy? Stalin felt Russia’s former allies – Britain, France, U.S. – had snubbed him again and he resented having been left out of the Munich Conference; He also wanted to avoid another war in Germany since the Soviet Union was in no way prepared for one. T.W. Loessin, Akins H.S – Germany and Russia sign a Nonaggression Pact.

24 AKINS HIGH SCHOOL World History Room 167 Tutorials: T ~ F; 8:20 ~ 8:50 CH 31, Sec. 4 “Aggressors on the March” Austrian troops in Vienna salute as Hitler and his forces make their triumphal entry into the city after Germany's annexation of Austria, known as the Anschluss (Union). TODAY’s OBJECTIVES: Describe Fascist aggression in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Summarize why British and French appeasement and American isolationism failed to stop Fascist aggression. Explain why the Soviets and Germany sign a peace pact. AGENDA: Get focused! Begin Warm-up immediately! WARM-UP: Examine the map on p. 813 of text, “Who were Aggressors in this period and where did aggression occur?” LECTURE / DISCUSSION; Packet p. TEST REVIEW FOR TOMORROW: Ch 31 TEST! Final Project is due! Morning Tutorials will begin promptly at 8:20

25 BONUS: Identify the name of this painting / and the artist / and the circumstances surrounding the event that occurred here. ASSIGNMENT: For Monday, Read Chapter 32, Section 1 – “Hitler’s Lightning War”

26 BONUS: - Identify the building in this photo; - what is taking place; - and the significance of the event here in regards to what took place in this country’s government in ASSIGNMENT: For Monday, Read Chapter 32, Section 1 – “Hitler’s Lightning War”

27 “ “_______ Watercolor and pen and ink on oil transfer drawing on paper. Artists Rights Society (ARS), MOMA, New York, VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn BONUS: - Identify the name of this painting - and the artist - and the suggestive meaning the artist revealed about this particular piece of his that reflects social attitudes of the time. ASSIGNMENT: For Monday, Read Chapter 32, Section 1 – “Hitler’s Lightning War”

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