Presentation on theme: "Resistance in Nazi Germany"— Presentation transcript:
1 Resistance in Nazi Germany Why was there so little resistance?
2 POTENTIAL OPPOSITION IN JANUARY 1933 CommunistsIn January 1933 there were several internal and external form of opposition to the NazisReligionArmyTraditional EliteTrade UnionsSchools/ EducationMediaJewsSA / Ernst Rohm
3 Why was there so little opposition? Factors which discouraged opposition…Factors which made opposition difficult…Ways people tried to oppose the regime…Groups that resisted …Individuals that resisted …Therefore, how much opposition was there?
5 Nazi successesHitler’s arrival caused a wave of enthusiasm and anticipation after the weak and indecisive Weimar RepublicHitler was successful in getting rid of unemployment:Public work schemesParty bureaucracyPurges of Jews and anti Nazis from civil service, education, journalism etcConscription re – introduced in 1935Arbeit and BrotKraft Der Freud
6 Support from many different groups Wealthy industrialists and businessmen e.g. Hugenberg, Krupps, Thyssen, IG Farben, did well (in spite of the government’s interference with their industries). Wages increased but so too did hours of work.A KDF CAR
7 Care was taken to keep the support of the workers once it had been gained by: Providing JobsDAFKraft durch FreudeThis poster links the German Labor Front (the DAF) to World War I. The point is that just as soldiers were comrades regardless of their standing in civil life, so too all German workers were comrades in the DAF, regardless of whether they were white or blue collar. This appeared in
8 Farmers supported them: Autarky or aim of self sufficiency in food supplies“Blood and Soil”Racial – AryanPrices fixed on produceFarmer could not be forced to sell or mortgage his farm to pay off debt – this was important as many had been ruined in the previous financial crises.Farms became hereditary estates and on the death of the owner could be passed on
9 The Reichswehr was won over by : Hitler’s stated aims of setting aside the restrictions of VersaillesRearmament and conscriptionThe Night of the Long Knives purgeBrilliant successes of Hitler’s foreign policies
10 Methods used to deal with these forms of opposition POTENTIAL OPPOSITIONIN JANUARY 1933Methods used to deal with these forms of oppositionCommunistsBanned from 1933Schools/ EducationReligion1934 – Education ChangedConcordat/ New Church/ Oath of eleganceMediaArmyControlled from the centreWorks with Army. SA gains support.JewsTraditional EliteAnti-semitismAwarding of contractsSA/ Ernst RohmTrade UnionsJune 1934 – Night of the Long KnivesAbolished in 1933.After August 1934 there was no legal way to remove Hitler. However opposition did not cease to exist. It only meant that opposition had to operate under the surface and consequently opposition found it difficult to organise.
11 LACK OF WIDESPREAD OPPOSITION WHY WAS OPPOSITION SO INEFFECTIVE? Traditional Respect for Legality and authorityUnderestimationOpposition had little in commonVictims such as Jews were popularLoyal Army (after Night of Long Knives)
12 Factors which made opposition difficult - ATTITUDES “ONE CANNOT LEAVE ONE’S COUNTRY IN THE LURCH JUST BECAUSE IT HAS A BAD GOVERNMENT”Bulow, Foreign Minister State Secretary“WE CANNOT CHANGE POLITICS. WE MUST DO OUR DUTY SILENTLY”General Fritsch Commander in Chief of the Army
13 Factors which made opposition difficult - REPRESSIVE MACHINERY GestapoSSConcentration campsArbitrary imprisonmentDenunciation by a network of informersPersecution
14 Who resisted? GROUPS Church Workers Army Civil Service and Judiciary Political, e.g. SOPADE OR SDP in exileElites, e.g. Kreisau CircleYouth, e.g. Edelweiss Pirates, Swing group, white RoseINDIVIDUALSCol StauffenbergGeneral OsterPastor BonhofferStudent Sophie SchollActor Joachim GottschalkJournalist Carl OsseitzkyTeacher Adolf ReichweinSocialist Julius LeberBishop Galen
15 HOW THEY DEALT WITH THEM GROUPSINDIVIDUALOPPOSITION TO THE NAZISPROVIDING SOMEOPPOSITION TO THE NAZISGROUPDETAILHISTORIANSWHO RESISTEDTYPE OF RESISTANCEPROBLEMS FACEDHOW THEY DEALT WITH THEMChurchCathoc Church – opposition to policies of euthanasia and sterilization.Protestant Confessional Church – refused to be NazifiedGeneral Hans Oster ( )Worked with BritainKnight of the Long KnivesConcentration CampWorkersNo legal weapon of opposition. Many workers grateful for employment.However strikes existed and many workers loyal to old political partiesOvery- “No – go” areas Mason – absentee workers, sabotagePastor: Dietrich Bonhoffer ( )Criticised Nazis as incaptabical with ChristianityHe had contacts with GeneralsExecuted in April 1945Actor: Joachim GottschalkFamous German married to a JewWas CriticisedKilled 8 year old child and committed suicideArmyOfficers remained suspicious of Hitler and Nazism. Several officers tried to assinate Hitler.Government and civil serviceThere were some critics among government, who wanted more freedom. They wanted a new form of government.TeacherActive role in resistanceCaught by a spy and condemnedJudiciarySome tried to maintain proper standards of justice.Opposition PartiesAll oposition banned in July 1933, and hit by a wave of arrests.Traditional ElitesDiscuss of eliminating HitlerYouthOther groups of opposition existed.Peukert- Cologne and Hamburg – widespread opposition amongst the young.
16 WAYS PEOPLE OPPOSED THE NAZIS Listening to jazzReading banned literatureNonconformityPrivate grumblingNot giving the Hitler saluteHumourDeserting armed forcesAssassinationSpying for foreign governmentsCollecting evidence of Nazi atrocitiesUnderachieving in the workplaceHiding JewsRefusing to join Hitler YouthDistributing anti Nazi leafletsTelling anti Nazi jokesListening to BBCEmigratingObstructive collaborationGoing on strikeCommitting suicideOpen criticismContinuing illegal parties and organizations
17 CONCLUSIONHistorians disagree on the extent of opposition and the problems opponents of Nazism faced. Aside from assassination attempts (9) the Nazi regime was secure and was only brought down by a vast coalition of enemy powers in World War Two.