Presentation on theme: "Protein Synthesis (The Making of Protein) Proteins are required for cell growth, repair, and regulation. With out protein there is no life."— Presentation transcript:
Protein Synthesis (The Making of Protein) Proteins are required for cell growth, repair, and regulation. With out protein there is no life.
Blood cells are made in bone marrow. Nucleus Chromosomes A section of chromosome that codes for trait is called a gene Endoplasmic Reticulum = ER
Nucleus Chromosome Super coiled DNA DNA Double Helix Nitrogenous Base Hydrogen Bond
Complementary Base Pairing DNA – DNADNA – RNA A - T A – U T - A T - A C - G C - G G - C G - C DNA unzipped by enzyme helicase A=adenineT=thymine C=cytosineG=guanine U=uracil Nitrogen Bases 3bases of mRNA = codon 3bases of tRNA = anticodon
Karyotype: a set of photographed Chromosomes placed in pairs. Autosomal = body Chromosome #1=22 ½ of each pair from mom ½ from dad sex chromosomes determine offspring’s (child’s sex) XY= male XX = female sperm determines sex of offspring eggs are always x
6 Steps of Protein Synthesis (The process of making a protein) 1. In the nucleus an enzyme, DNA helicase, unzips a section of the DNA double helix. 2. In the nucleus the enzyme RNA polymerase transcribes the DNA into complementary bases G - C DNA = A - U mRNA T - A C - G 3. mRNA takes it’s list of complementary bases and leaves the nucleus, going into the cytoplasm.
Those 3 steps are known as transcription (to scribe is to write) DNA is copied as RNA
The Endoplasmic Reticulum is where polypeptide chains, made of amino acids, fold to become functional proteins. Endoplasmic Reticulum mRNA Ribosome Polypeptide chain
Nucleus Smooth ER Has no Ribosomes. Rough ER has ribosomes attached delivering polypeptide chains to be folded.
Blood Vessels sickled red blood cells are made by normal red blood cells are made by normal Amino Acid sequence abnormal Amino Acid sequence
Normal folded protein of red blood cells
Normal Hemoglobin Sickle Cell Hemoglobin DNA GGG CTT CTT TTT mRNA Amino Acids Shape of Blood Cells GGG CAA CTT TTT Find the mutation and how that affects the mRNA that are made.
Normal Hemoglobin Sickle Cell Hemoglobin DNA GGG CTT CTT TTT mRNA Amino Acids Shape of Blood Cells GGG CAA CTT TTT Find the mutation and how that affects the amino acids used. CCC GAA GAAAAACCCGUUGAAAAA
Only decodes ______ 3 mRNA bases= 1codon 1 codon = 1 amino acid Words around Wheel = amino acids A chain of Amino acids is Called a Polypeptide Chain.
Normal Hemoglobin Sickle Cell Hemoglobin DNA GGG CTT CTT TTT mRNA Amino Acids Shape of Blood Cells GGG CAA CTT TTT Find the mutation and how that affects the proteins that are made. CCC GAA GAAAAACCCGUUGAAAAA
Modified proteins leave the ER in transport vesicles – the golgi apparatus packages them and releases them out of the cell.
Polypeptide chains, made of amino acids, fold into specific shaped proteins which do specific jobs.
4. mRNA goes to a ribosome and is translated by tRNA. The tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome. U-A mRNA = C-G = tRNA A-U G-C 5. Complementary tRNA gives the amino acid it was carrying to the ribosome. The ribosome attaches it to the growing polypeptide chain. 6. Only after the polypeptide chain folds, does it become a fully functional protein.