Presentation on theme: "Masayuki Okumura.; Rafael B.Ribeiro.; Nelson Tsuno*.; Nagib Curi and Joaquim Gama Rodrigues Faculdade de Medicina Universidade de S. Paulo (Brazil) and."— Presentation transcript:
Masayuki Okumura.; Rafael B.Ribeiro.; Nelson Tsuno*.; Nagib Curi and Joaquim Gama Rodrigues Faculdade de Medicina Universidade de S. Paulo (Brazil) and Tokyo University (Japan)* Remember: Right is always the laboratory animal; it is irrational and does not know the “ blindman and elephant” tale. AAAS ANNUAL MEETING - WASHINGTON, DC. (17 – 21 FEBRUARY 2005) Due to the lack of cells, the scientists estimate a ratio of “only one in 100,000 bone marrow cells may be trunk cells or embryonic stem cells 8 ”, or admit the cellular dedifferentiation or plasticity 9. We wish to help clarify by a hypothesis: those cells do not exist freely in nature, because they are formed after being stimulated and can be found in any tissue, as a Primitive amorphous mass, both in embryos and in adult animals. We demonstrate their presence (T.cruzi) in three different situations and evolutions 6.7 : RESULTS and DISCUSSION a) in tissues: tripomastigote (flagellate) transforming into amastigote (oval), reproduce by successive binary division and forms parasites nest. Blood stream two adults: Trypanosoma cruzi. 1 Macrophage filled with amastigotes 24 Colon, Auerbach plexus rupture of nest within parasitic neuron and ruptured of host cell without inflammatory reaction Colon, Auerbach plexus: integral neuron with parasites without inflammatory reaction (histology- HE. 400X) 3 d) Examining liver, bone marrow and spleen imprints of fetal and adult mice, we found greater amount of “Primitive Amorphous Mass” in chagasic embryos and fetuses (in 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of pregnancy) and none in animals controls. b) in hematopoietic organs: embryonic liver (spherical cell) transformed by an “elongation or direct mechanism” into epimastigote (tadpole) Liver, histology: slide with free parasites in the capillaries and sinusoids (Giemsa. – photo Kodak Film) 5 Liver, imprint: spherical and developing forms resulting for elongation (Giemsa. – photo Kodak Film) 6 Liver, imprint: Evolutionary form resulting from elongation – resembling tadpole. (Giemsa. – photo Kodak Film) 7 c) in bone marrow and spleen (ring shaped amastigote) evolve by an “uncoiling, unwinding or indirect mechanism” into epimastigote (tadpole) Sternal bone marrow: amastigote nest (histology, 400 X. H.E.) 8 Sternal bone marrow, imprint: ring – shaped and evolutive forms resulting from unwinding. (Giemsa – photo Kodak film) 9 Mouse: uterus bicorni 2 nd week with embryos and fetus 11 Mouse: uterus bicorni, with three weeks old fetus; 12 Fetal mouse “primitive amorphous mass” 13 Newborn and pregnant adults 14 Adult mouse: “primitive amorphous mass” 15 10 Bone marrow, imprint: parasite evolved by an “unwinding or indirect mechanism” (Giemsa. - photo Kodak Film) INTRODUCTION Currently scientists are impressed with the versatility, potentiality and pathway of “trunk or stem cells”, but questions still remain unanswered 1.2. BACKGROUND Some researchers are working towards clinical applications with surprise and promising results, about the bone marrow transplantation and blood from umbilical cords and the founding of the umbilical cord banks. OBJECTIVE We can assume that there is “the Primitive Amorphous Mass 3 ”, which is formed before it eventually turns into the embryonic stem cells or trunk cells whith we find throughout the organism in a prevailing number in hematopoietic and lymphopoietic organs. METHODOLOGY Inoculation of Trypanosoma cruzi 4 into mice (abdomen way) from the very first day through the 365 th day under normal control. We mated the diseased mice and we sacrificed them weekly during pregnancy so that we could follow up on the evolution of the unborn offspring. The Tripanosomiasis americana (Chagas´ disease) 5 is an ideal disease for this study, because T.cruzi, functioning as biological markers to study the “primitive amorphous mass”. 1.HELMUTH, L.- Stem Cells Hear Call of Injured Tissue Science, 2000, 290; 1479-1481. 2.VOGEL, G.- Stem Cells: New Excitement, Persistent questions Science, 2000, 290: 1672-1674. 3.OKUMURA, M. & GAMA-RODRIGUES, J.- Fruitful Jelly or Amorphous Primitive Mass Non published 4.CHAGAS, C.- Nova Tripanosomiase humana. Estudo sobre a morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n.gen, n.sp, agente etiológico de nova entidade mórbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 1909, 2: 1-62. 5.CHAGAS, C.- Processos patogênicos da tripanosomiase americana. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 1916, 8: 7-36. REFERENCES 6.OKUMURA, M.- Primitive Amorphous Mass Non published 7.RIBEIRO, R.B.; et al. – Relato sobre a infecção crônica do Trypanosoma cruzi (cepa Y) em camundongos Swiss. Rev. Brás. Medicina. Tropical, 1999, 32;334 (sup.1) 8.KRAUSE, D.S.- Multi organs, multi lineage engraftment by a single bone marrow derived stem cells. Cell, 2001, 105: 369-377 9.HOLDEN, C & VOGEL, G.- Plasticity: time for a reappraisal ? Science, 2002, 296: 2126-2129. CONCLUSION The umbilical blood cord, rich in embryonic trunk or stem cells originates chiefly in the liver and in lesser amount in bone marrow, spleen and also in other tissues where our “Primitive Amorphous Mass” (cellular matrix) is located.