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Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain Movement- bones act as levers for.

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Presentation on theme: "Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain Movement- bones act as levers for."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain Movement- bones act as levers for muscles Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis

3 The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system ·Bones (skeleton) ·Joints ·Cartilages ·Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle) Divided into two divisions ·Axial skeleton ·Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle

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6 Bones of the Human Body The skeleton of an adult has 206 bones · Two basic types of bone tissue · Compact bone · Homogeneous · Spongy bone · Small needle-like pieces of bone · Many open spaces

7 275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long)

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9 Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phalanges, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula Short Bones- carpals, tarsals Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones Sesamoid- patella

10 Classification of Bones Long bones · Typically longer than wide · Have a shaft with heads at both ends · Contain mostly compact boneExamples: Femur, humerus

11 Classification of Bones Short bones ·Generally cube-shape ·Contain mostly spongy bone ·Examples: Carpals, tarsals

12 Classification of Bones Flat bones ·Thin and flattened ·Usually curved ·Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone ·Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

13 Classification of Bones Irregular bones · Irregular shape ·Do not fit into other bone classification categories ·Example: Vertebrae and hip

14 Sesamoid bones Embedded within tendon where its passes over a joint Free surface covered with cartilage; the other part embedded within tendon; no periosteum Patella (within the tendon of m. quadriceps femoris)

15 Additional bones Mainly in the skull: ossa interfrontalis, coronalis, sagittalis, lambdoidalis, etc. Known also as ossa suturarum

16 Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis diaphysis yellow marrow epiphyseal line periosteum compact bone spongy bone Endosteum hyaline cartilage Sharpey’s fibers

17 Structures of a Long Bone Periosteum ·Outside covering of the diaphysis ·Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpey’s fibers ·Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries ·Supply bone cells with nutrients

18 Structures of a Long Bone Articular cartilage · Covers the external surface of the epiphyses · Made of hyaline cartilage · Decreases friction at joint surfaces

19 Structures of a Long Bone Medullary cavity ·Cavity of the shaft ·Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults ·Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants

20 Components of Bone Cortical bone – Structural Trabecular bone – Structural Bone Marrow – Structural and RBC Vessels – Nutritional and Innervation

21 Cortical Bone Osteon (Harvesian Canals) –Cylindrical tubes made of concentric lamellae –Central opening Blood vessels Neural tissue Lymphatic Periosteum –Fibrous tissue covering –Enables attachment of muscles and tendons

22 Cortical bone Lamellae –Concentric layers of mineralized bone –Crisscross pattern at 90  –Torsion and bending strength Osteoclasts –Bone resorbing Osteoblasts –Bone forming

23 Trabecular Bone Cancellous or Spongy Lattice structure Pores filled with marrow 20% Bone Mass 80% Bone Surface

24 Trabecular Structure Plate and rod structure –Low loads - rod –Higher loads - plate Light yet spongy Oriented in direction of loads –“Wolff’s Law”

25 Bone Marrow Consists of stroma, myeloid tissue, fat, lympatic tissues Red marrow Involved with the production of RBC Consists of haemopoetic tissue Highly vascularized Yellow marrow Not as vascularized as red marrow Large amount of fat cells Percentage increases wrt red marrow with age (up to20yrs)

26 Mechanisms of bone formation Membranous ossification how: direct differentiation of cells within mesenchymal condensations into bone forming cells (osteoblasts) flat bones of the skull, clavicle, periosteum Endrochondral ossification how: replacement of a cartilagenous template by bone endochondral bones:axial and appendicular skeleton, some bones in the skull

27 Membranous bone formation

28 Endochondral Ossification

29 cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyseal plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months AdultChildhood Just before birth

30 Types of bone cells involved in bone homeostasis

31 How do cells look?

32 Origin of bone cells

33 hematoma callus bony callus bone remodeling

34 Diseases of the Skeletal System: Osteoporosis- bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit; bones become lighter and fracture easier Factors: age, gender (more in women) estrogen and testosterone decrease insufficient exercise (or too much) diet poor in Ca ++ and protein abnormal vitamin D receptors smoking

35 Osteoporosis

36 Rickets- vitamin D deficiency Osteomalacia- soft bones, inadequate mineralization in bones, lack of vitamin D Pagets Disease- spotty weakening in the bones, excessive and abnormal bone remodeling Rheumatoid arthritis- autoimmune reaction Diseases of the Skeletal System


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