Presentation on theme: "Professor Ignatius I. Uvah, PhD (Cantab) Agricultural, Management & Educational Consultant Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria."— Presentation transcript:
Professor Ignatius I. Uvah, PhD (Cantab) Agricultural, Management & Educational Consultant Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria
Outline of the presentation: Introduction: Conceptual considerations; Evolution of university education in Nigeria Challenges for 21 st Century Nigerian Universities: National; Institutional What is being done now What more to do Role of Academic Planning Conclusion 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja2 Summary
Definitions: University: An institution for post-secondary studies and training usually leading to the award of degrees; diplomas and certificates; A place of education at the highest level, where degrees are given ( Longmans Dictionary); “an academic institution … for the award of degrees and other academic qualifications” NUC (1997) 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja3 Conceptual Considerations: What is a University?
Definitions cont’d: Academic Planning: “An interaction process in which institutional and academic unit goals, and the means for achieving goals are negotiated between faculty, administrators, students and other parties within and outside the university. Thus academic planning integrates concepts and activities from academic programme review, budgetary planning, and academic administration” - Larry R Jones ; Univ. of British Colombia “Academic planning occurs anytime a decision (is made) about what academic programs, degrees or research the institution will support ” – Society for College and University Planning, USA 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja4 Conceptual Considerations: What is Academic Planning?
Definitions cont’d: Academic Planning: “Academic Planning examines the importance of building a college or university academic plan alongside the institution's strategic plan” – Daniel James Rowley and Herbert Sherman “The desirability of academic planning has increased; however, the meaning of academic planning remains imprecise” – Bruce Fuller, California Assembly Academic Planning is the front end of Management; i.e. Planning is an integral part of management 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja5 Conceptual Considerations: Academic Planning cont’d
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja6 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 1 Federal Universities: University education in Nigeria started with establishment of the University College, Ibadan in 1948 following the Elliot Commission recommendation of 1945. Subsequently, the University of Nigeria was established in 1960. In 1962, the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife and University of Lagos were established. - 5
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja7 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 2 Federal Universities: University of Benin was then established in 1970. In 1975, the seven second generation universities were established at Jos, Calabar, PortHarcourt, Sokoto, Ilorin and Kano. - 13. During the 1980s, the FGN converted its military training school (the NDA) to a University. In 1980, the FGN established seven universities of Technology at Abeokuta, Makurdi, Akure, Bauchi, Owerri Minna and Yola. The first two were converted to universities of Agriculture in1985.
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja8 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 3 Federal Universities: University of Abuja was established in 1988. In the early 1990s, the Federal Government took over the state universities at Awka and Uyo and converted them to Federal universities.
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja9 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 4 Federal Universities cont’d : Later in 2007, FGN established Federal University of Petroleum Resources (FUPRE) at Effurun. Recently, the FGN established nine more universities at Lokoja, Dutsin-Ma, Lafia, Dutse, Kashere, Wukari, Ndufu- Alike, Oye-Ekiti and Otuoke. The FGN, about two months ago, converted the Police College at Wudil to a university. Thus there are 37 Federal universities as at now. Federal universities are often categorised by age into 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd generation institutions.
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja10 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 4 State Universities The 1979 Constitution placed education on the concurrent legislative list. States could therefore create universities In 1980, the first state university, RSUST, was established at Portharcourt Subsequently, more state universities were established during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Nigeria now has 37 state universities.
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja11 Evolution of University Education in Nigeria 5 Private Universities The promulgation of Decree (now Act) 9 of 1993 made provision for the establishment of private Universities. 50 private universities have to date been issued licenses to operate. Total Number of Nigerian Universities Consequently, there is a total of 118 approved Universities in Nigeria. In addition, there are 4 Inter-University Centres
Why Plan (in the context of universities)? To ensure orderly development of individual universities and the university system; and To ensure achievement of national and institutional objectives. What are the challenges to orderly development of the universities? 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja12 Purpose of Planning
Institutional Challenges for universities: Funding: IGR; Carrying capacity : Student enrolment, Teachers, TSR, admission quota; and Infrastructure and facilities: Academic spaces; Municipal facilities; Learning resources; and ICT; Governance – Leadership & tensions; Planning; Conditions of Service & Brain drain; accountability; Campus vices; Maintenance culture Quality & Relevance – Programs and Curriculum; Environment & others – Aids, ICT, Community relations. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja14 Institutional Challenges
Objective of Government is to provide adequate access to university education for those who desire it; as a vehicle for socio-economic transformation; Although degree student enrolment in the Nigerian university system, which in 1948 was 104, is now well over 950,000, the system has been unable to cope with the demand for university education. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja15 Access
Trends 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja16 Funding for Federal Universities YEAR AMOUNT RECEIVED (N) Recurrent Capital 2004 41,840,735,050 9,462,455,178 2005 47,290,489,886 9,397,660,000 2006 73,161,996,247 5,760,105,402 2007 78,482,540,961 7,184,637,934 200894,552,983,733 13,197,505,486 2009103,008,978,422 9,995,998,748 2010163,729,239,325 20,429,524,422 2011167,667,580,574 15,956,588,967
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja17 Funding for Federal Universities ( ₦ billions)
Current challenges: Funding: Federal Government provides a budget cap (envelope) based on projected earnings and not on the needs of the universities; Federal universities are not allowed to charge tuition fees; States often spread finances for their universities thin over multi-campus systems; Consequently, many universities have budget provisions well below their needs. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja18 Funding Issues
Student enrolment: Over 950,000 degree students currently are enrolled. Teachers : Over 36,000 academics in Nigerian Universities currently Teacher/student Ratios: The composite TSR of 26.4 is high and yet is not reflective of the atrocious STRs for some programmes at many of the universities. Divided attention: Frequently, each academic staff teaches at three or more universities 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja19 Carrying Capacity
Infrastructure and Facilities: Inadequate classroom, lecture theatre, library, laboratory, workshop and studio spaces; poor electricity and water supply; poor telecommunications and ICT Inadequate equipment; often insufficient; and sometimes obsolete Tendency to enroll more students than infrastructure and facilities can support. Learning Resources: Dearth of Books and Journals; Lack of, or poor access to Internet resources 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja20 Infrastructure and other Facilities
Governance: Succession is often acrimonious, rancorous & disorderly; Frequent cases of tension among Managers Poor management practices: Delegation; Finances Poor planning; often no strategic plan; expired academic and physical plans Poor Conditions of Service; thus Brain drain 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja21 Governance 1
Governance: Impunity: Indiscipline and Campus vices: Admission racketeering, exam malpractice, marks-for- sale deals (sorting), plagiarism, sexual harassment, extortion through handouts; cultism, etc. often go unpunished Staff truancy: Some academics give 2-3 lectures only for a 15-week semester & cover only a small fraction of the curriculum Culture of inefficiency: Student registration; Transcripts 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja22 Governance 2
Policy constraints: Cumbersome curriculum approval process at national level; Federal no-tuition-fee policy – impoverishes universities leading to inadequate resources for their programmes Illegal ( & poorly provided) programmes and affiliations Relevance: Curricula seek merely to meet national standards and are not solution-oriented. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja24 Quality and Relevance
Environment and other challenges ICT and Globalization Irregular academic calendar No or poor Industry-University Cooperation Aids Pandemic: Loss of valuable human resources Community relations: Encroachment on university lands; Poor outreach and community service provision 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja25 Miscellaneous Challenges
National Universities Commission With 5 universities in 1962, FGN begin to experience challenges with coordination and regulation of these very complex institutions; FGN therefore established NUC in 1962 as a unit in the Cabinet Office to ensure orderly development of universities in the country; NUC attained statutory status by Decree 1 of 1974. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja26 Current Interventions 1: Regulation of Universities
Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board Universities (through CVC) experiencing waste of space from multiple admissions for the brighter candidates, requested FG to create a structure for coordination of university admissions; Thus FG established JAMB to conduct entrance examinations and, in consultation with the universities, admit new entrants to the institutions. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja27 Current Interventions 2: Orderly Admissions
Federal Government Regulation of universities & coordination of admissions Staff Motivation – periodic wage reviews/increases Increased funding for universities Improved quality of governing councils; stability Established more universities - access National Universities Commission: Curriculum development for relevance – MAS (1989), BS (2001) and BMAS (2004) Accreditation: UG, PG; Institutional Regulation, Monitoring and Evaluation: New state & private universities; New programmes; etc. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja28 Current Interventions 3: Roles
Industries Advocacy & support for Public-Private-Partnerships: qualified success Donations, Endowments, Etc. Universities: Campaign against cultism (with assistance of FG); Regulations against “student extortion” through handouts; 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja29 Current Interventions 4
Role of Academic Planning: Advisory as part of Mgt. Introduce Performance Audit: Management to constitute a committee either led or resourced by academic planning. Committee to: Agree targets and performance indicators with those to be assessed Do quarterly, half-yearly or annual audits of units; Get feedback from both assessors and the assessed units on effectiveness of audit assessment; Advise Management on corrective measures. Strategic Planning: Do university strategic plan with broad participation of staff; key 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja30 Whither Academic Planning? 1
Role of Academic Planning cont’d: Hold academic staff accountable through Student assessment of their teachers: Assessment at the end of courses taught and projects supervised Develop formula for collating to produce an annual grade from assessments Formalise sharing of the university’s academic staff with other institutions: Develop regulations to guide those academics who wish to teach at universities other than their primary assignment university. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja31 Whither Academic Planning? 2
Role of Academic Planning: Promote multimedia equipped and ICT-enabled lecture theatres and halls: Equip with PowerPoint presentation equipment; voice amplification equipment; etc. Introduce Internal Efficiency Strategies: Develop consensus & reduce duplication of effort between Education, on the one hand, and Humanities and Sciences, on the other. Same for Medicine (and other science-based professional disciplines) and Science. Introduce proven ICT-based student registration systems 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja32 Whither Academic Planning? 3
Role of Academic Planning cont’d: Succession: Develop a well defined institutional succession strategy; Do management training for mid-level managers. Develop and implement a “Bill of rights and responsibilities” for staff and students. Improved funding strategies: Determine unit cost; base budgets in part on unit cost; Other creative strategies next: 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja33 Whither Academic Planning? 4
Creative fund generation strategies: Small and medium scale business Alumni contributions Manufacturing Rental of spaces and recreational facilities Consultancy services Marketing research results University-industry partnerships Cost sharing for municipal services Parents Forum 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja34 Whither Academic Planning? 5
Multifarious challenges threaten the mission of universities; Planning can help bring about positive change; Universities willing to reposition their institutions and embrace reforms, can achieve their missions; Academic Planning functions as part of Management and must therefore play a key role in ensuring orderly development of the institutions and continual improvements in their processes, programs and projects. 2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja35 Conclusion
2012 CODAPNU Annual Conf., Abuja36 Thank you for listening. And God bless