3What do you think could have prompted Merkel to say this? ‘Der Islam gehört zu Deutschland’ (Islam is part of Germany), Angela Merkel, 12th January 2015.What do you think could have prompted Merkel to say this?What did Merkel mean when she said this?Adam
5Rationale To give you: Use of selective examples to illustrate: A background of Germany’s Muslims.An overview of government initiatives towards Muslims.Use of selective examples to illustrate:The issues that Muslims face in Germany.The difference between perception and reality.Opposition to Islamic culture in Germany.Ali
6Presentation structure Brief history of Islam in GermanyGuest worker recruitment and the new era of Muslim immigration (Turkey).Muslims in Germany todayCivic integrationFemininity and Masculinity, gender and gendered practices.Islam in public discourse.PegidaAli
7Brief history of Islam In Germany Goethe had an interest in Islam and a high regard for the religion.German Empire link to the Ottoman Empire.German-Turkish alliance during the First World War.Foundation of the Berlin Islamic Community in 1922.NickThe history of Islam in Germany goes back as far as Charlemagne.The Kaiser visited Turkey and the Middle East.Foundation of the Berlin Islamic Community in 1922, to promote Islam and build a mosque.
8Guest worker recruitment in the post-war years. Turks (from 1961), Moroccans (from 1963) and Tunisians (from 1965).3 million Muslims in Germany today.Prayer rooms, mosques and minarets have appeared in most large cities and many small towns.Legal issue of headscarves.Growing fears that the ‘minority’ is coming to dominate the ‘majority’.NickGuest worker recruitment in the post-war years brought about a new wave of Muslim immigration to Germany.More recent influxes of refugees from Iraq, Afghanistan and Bosnia.According to statistics provided by the German government there are around 3 million Muslims in Germany today, with around 1 million being German citizens.The practice of women-only swimming days for Muslim women has been introduced.
9Guest worker recruitment Der Spiegel, April 1964Post-war economy, demand for cheap labour.Turkish workers (amongst others)Treaty of 30th October 1961, travelling expenses for Turkish workers are covered by the German government.Short-term basis.This changed later for economic reasons, and workers were allowed to bring their families.One million guest workers had arrived by 1964.AliTwo year contracts in order to prevent permanent settlement.It was reported in 2011 that 2.5 million people with Turkish backgrounds resided in Germany ( with German citizenship).Talk about the gaze of the image, the people are looking at the viewer, but still a negative message? Large, mainly male group, threatening?Link the statistic on the slide to the date of the article.
10Turkey as a country of emigration Traditionally known as a country of emigration.Guest workersFamily reunification schemes in the 1980s and 1990sAsylum (Kurds).Not just emigration to Western Europe.Damaging to the Turkish economy, many skilled workers left the country.AliTurkey not the only example, but the large majority of Germany’s Muslims come from there.The oil crisis of 1973 ends recruitment to Western Europe, but the economic boom in the Middle East saw many Turks working in Libya, Saudi Arabia and Iraq.To the present day, many highly skilled Turkish workers emigrate to Europe.3.6 million Turkish nationals living abroad (3.2 million in Europe).
11Muslims in Germany today Largest Muslim population in Western Europe after France.Most of Germany’s Muslims live in the West of the country.Nordrhein WestphalenBaden-WürttembergDifferent groups of Muslims, e.g. Sunnis, AlevitesOnly a third of Germany’s Muslims pray daily.Adam10 facts about Muslims in Germany from ‘die Zeit’. This is the source of the data and graphs.
12AdamPublic opinions on Muslims in Germany, Perception.But, only a snapshot.
13Many German Muslims support: Gay marriageAbortionThe right to die.The stereotypes of a backward and repressive religion are inaccurate.Die Welt, 8 January 2015NickReality?Discuss with the class, get them to interpret the data.Whatever your individual opinions on these issues are, these statistics suggest that the stereotypes of a backward and repressive religion are inaccurate.
14Gender and gendered practices Weber, B.M (2013)Two main practices covered in the textViolence (both domestic and familial)HeadscarvesAdamIt also covers public discourses, differences between not just Turkey and Germany but also the role of Christianity and Islam in Germany and it’s public sphere.The text challenges assumptions about C+I, namely how Christianity is normalised as a secular path to peace and Islam, in which violence is located as well as being considered non-European (another assumption), is seen as inherently opposed to secularism.It also seeks to locate these issues in the public sphere
15Violence Honour based Gendered Media portrayals Backwards = links to IslamophiaGenderedPosition of women’s bodies in societyMedia portrayalsViolence against Muslim women is very successful in German mediaFocus shift from class/national difference to religious/cultural differenceWhat effect could this have on audiences?Headscarf as violenceSymbolised as inherent to domestic violenceAdamGender violence relies on honor-shame complexIn Germany, “Muslim honor” changed to become “Turkish honor” to explain the values of Turkish-heritage communities in Germany. Domestic and familial violence are often framed as culturally specific “honor crimes” which has consequences:Public sphere: headscarves associated with honor crimesMuslim women seen as being confined to staying at home sources of violence are often located outside Europe moulding Islam to fit Germany but only as convenientIdentifying Muslim cultures as backward regarding gender relations, strongly linked honor killings etc makes taking action against honor crimes difficult as it merges easy with Islamophobic discoursesGendered:Discourses on violence against Muslim women suggest that violence against Muslim women emerges from a desire to protect honor, which is predicated on the sexual purity of a women.In the German public sphere, Muslim male bodies are described as a weapon used by Islam against Muslim womenMedia:Topics such as forced violence and honor killings have been discussed for the last 3 decades, despite only recently receiving press attentionshift in focus on immigrants from emphasis on class and national difference to religious and cultural differences.Headscarves:Headscarf became a symbol of domestic violence following an increase in the visibility of Muslim women in public mediaOther publications [not the Spiegel] see the headscarf as purely a symbol against the emancipation of women with fewer specific references to domestic violence.
16AdamHijab and Niqab (depends on what countries the women are wearing them in)What are your thoughts on these pictures?
17Headscarves Hijab martyr Banning of headscarves Clash of cultures debateAdam‘Hijab-martyr’ murdered court in front of her husband and son. Labelled as such by the press and became the first Islamophobic murder in Germany Women from the courtroom was killed just after giving her testimony. Not by a family member. In fact, her husband was shot by a policeman entering the room who assumed he had killed her.Headscarves banned for public teachers in 8/16 provinces, only Berlin banned all religious symbols. Nick will talk in further detail about a court case in a few minutes.Gives rise to clash of cultures debate:What kind of legal decision would demonstrate European tolerance in relation to an intolerant Islam?How much tolerance is too much?Problem with the debate:The wearing of the headscarf is seen to be a threat to the peaceful coexistence of differing religious views and worldviews, that will evoke protests and conflict with parents.
18‘After nearly 50 years, Germany's institutions still react rather helplessly to the permanent changes that have taken place in society.’‘Self-proclaimed representatives of Islam… despite their openly Islamistic tendencies -- have accomplished a great deal and are demanding much more.’‘This is a distressing development for a large number of integrated Muslims, many of whom emigrated to Germany to flee precisely this type of fundamentalism.’‘Critics of the government's approach say that it would be better to gauge concessions toward Islam to the needs and interests of these Muslims. They suggest that by bolstering the more moderate elements of Islam, it will be possible to shape a common future with their help.’U.S. Stegemann, professor for Islamic studies at the University of Marburg.NickLook at the quotes in bold. This links on to the next section about civic integration of Muslims.
19Procedures for civic integration. Michalowski (2014) text.Are Muslims specifically targeted by integration measures?45 Stunden Deustchland, a booklet used in the course given to migrants from most non-EU countries.The French and German examples are good indicators of how three forms of institutions are seen to be threatened by Muslim immigration:Separation of church and stateGender equalityIndividual liberties.Implicit targeting of Muslims in these civic integration programmes.NickComparison between civic integration programmes for new immigrants in France and Germany.Specific targeting goes against the fundamental values of liberal democracy, that these courses try and portray.Due to the post-9/11 push by European states for ‘integration’, are Muslims specifically targeted by integration measures?The German programme shows specific images of Muslims when discussing certain issues, explicitly targeting them (this is not the case in the French programme).
20Difficulty in striking a balance between: Michalowski distinguishes between two different approaches to civic integration:Socio-cultural normsJuridicio- political norms.Difficulty in striking a balance between:Making citizenship meaningful for immigrantsCultural assimilation.Turks are less effectively integrated than other groups and are more likely to be:Poorly educatedUnemployedUnderpaidNickBerlin Institute for Population Development (source for the statistics)
21What type of civic integration do you believe is the most beneficial? Who has the main responsibility to integrate migrants:Government?Migrants themselves?The German people?NickGroup discussion, then bring it back to collect idea.
22Islam in public discourse High-profile negative news stories of Islamist extremism.Effect on the public perception of Muslims as a whole.‘Often no proper differentiation is made by the German public between issues of Islamic terrorism, Islamism, and the general phenomenon of immigrant crime. This, as well as the general negative attitude towards Muslims, seems to be foremost due to negative political and media discussions.’‘Islam in Germany’, Euro IslamAliIslamic StateCharlie Hebdo attacksLee Rigby9/11 and the ‘War on Terror’Bush and Blair’s oil wars.
24AliISIS-Terror gegen unsere Kanzlerin!Ein radikaler Islamist aus NRW droht in einem Terror-Video Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel (60)! Und er ruft Muslime aus Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz auf, sich den Dschihadisten anzuschließen.Das hochprofessionell gemachte Video wurde am Mittwochabend im Netz veröffentlicht. BILD hat es gesehen. Der deutsche ISIS-Kämpfer spricht deutsch, seine Hetzrede ist mit englischen Untertiteln versehen. Er sitzt in Militärkleidung auf sandigem Boden, ein Sturmgewehr lehnt an seinem rechten Arm. Er trägt einen verfilzten Rauschebart, hat blaugraue Augen.
25Association of Islam with: CrimeTerrorismThe oppression of womenHonour killingsBackwardnessIntolerance.Homogenous groupFocus on honour killings, forced marriage, mosque constructions and banning the veil.AliFairly one-sided media coverage.Coverage neglects the diversity in belief and piety amongst Germany’s Muslims.Homogenous group (a perception that the previously given statistics refute).
27Bavarian court ruling in 2014. The veil has been, like in other European countries, subject to debate in the media.It is not banned in Germany, because it is claimed that this would be unconstitutional.Bavarian court ruling in 2014.AliThe veil is not banned, but 2014 judgement in Bavaria about a Muslim student not being allowed to wear her Niqab to school.
29Pegida ‘Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes‘ Dresden-based popular protest against the ‘Islamification’ of Germany and Europe.Weekly demonstrations in Dresden, which have spread across Germany.Counter-protests usually outnumber the Pegida protests.Lutz BachmannAdam‘Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West’Muslims make up less than 1% of Saxony’s population.Lutz Bachmann resigned after Hitler photograph controversy.
30AdamThis image illustrates how outnumbered the Pegida-demonstrators have been in all towns they have protested in.
31Wir sind nicht "politisch korrekt"...! JEDER Mensch, gleich welcher Nationalität oder Religion ist uns willkommen !!!Wir wollen einfach KEINE GEWALT auf unseren Straßen wie z.B. in Hamburg oder Celle !!!Unsere Städte, Dörfer und Gemeinden sind KEINE Orte zum Austragen von Stellvertreter- oder Glaubenskriegen!!! Wir akzeptieren KEINE HETZE von irgendwelchen Salafisten gegen "Ungläubige" oder Andersgläubige... Wir akzeptieren in Europa keinerlei "Tätigkeiten" von IS, PKK, al Kaida oder wie sie alle heißen!Die Trennung von Staat und Kirche war und ist ein Erfolg in Europa.Der "Vater der Türken", Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, führte die Türkei, nach der Trennung von Staat und Religion, mit Erfolg in die Moderne und hat damit bewiesen, dass dazu auch ein muslimisch geprägtes Land in der Lage ist!Extracts from the Pegida Facebook pageNickNot politically correct, Anti-Establishment movement.This kind of idea has seemed to take root in Europe at the moment (UKIP and Farage).
32Pegida protest, 12th January 2015 How would you describe the ‘typical’ Pegida protester?Why do think Pegida has emerged and what future do you think it has?Pegida protest, 12th January 2015NickClass discussionGo on to the next slide to reveal the answer (statistically speaking).
33Middle-aged male from the east of Germany. Wider frustration with European integration, immigration and out-of- touch government.The AfD as another example of this in Germany.NickThe main demographic of a Pegida protester is a middle-aged male from the East of Germany.It seems to slot into a wider frustration with European integration, immigration and out-of-touch government.
34Is Islam ‘part of’ Germany? AliFinal discussion.In groups or just as a class, depending on the time.Looking back to the start of the presentation.Split the room into two groups?Was the guest worker programme a good thing for Germany?Is Islam compatible with Western culture?
35Bibliography (Part 1)Betz, M. and Eichinger, R., ‘Was Deutsche wirklich über Integration und Islam denken’, 10 October <http://www.bild.de/politik/2010/was-die-deutschen-wirklich-ueber-islam-und-integration- denken bild.html> [Accessed 7 March 2015]‘Dürfen wir vorstellen: Deutschlands Muslime’, die Zeit, 29 January <http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/ /islam-muslime-in-Deutschland> [Accessed 7 March 2015]Huggler, J., ‘Germany's 'Islamisation' marches: how the pro- and anti-Pegida rallies measured up’, The Telegraph, 13 January <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/ /Germanys-Islamisation- marches-how-the-pro-and-anti-Pegida-rallies-measured-up.html> [Accessed 9 March 2015]‘Islam in Germany’, Euro-Islam <http://www.euro-islam.info/cou’ntry-profiles/germany/> [Accessed 7 March 2015]Kirisci, K., ‘Turkey: A Transformation from Emigration to Immigration’, Migration Policy Institute, 1 November 2003 <http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/turkey-transformation-emigration- immigration> [Accessed 9 March 2015]Löbbert, R., ‘57 Prozent der Deutschen fühlen sich vom Islam bedroht‘, die Zeit, 8 January <http://www.zeit.de/gesellschaft/zeitgeschehen/ /islam-pegida-islamfeindlichkeit- religionsmonitor> [Accessed 7 March 2015]Michalowski, I., ‚Legitimizing Host Country Institutions: A Comparitive Analysis of the Content of Civic Education Courses in France and Germany‘, in European States and Their Muslim Citizens: The Impact of Institutions on Perceptions and Boundaries, ed. By J.R. Bowen et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp
36Bibliography (Part 2)Peters, F., ‚Ablehnung des Islam in Deutschland wächst‘, Die Welt, 8 January <http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article /Ablehnung-des-Islam-in-Deutschland- waechst.html> [Accessed 9 March 2015]Stegemann, U.S., ‘Allah and the Occident: How Islam Came to Germany’, Spiegel, 16 June <http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/allah-and-the-occident-how-islam-came-to- germany-a html> [Accessed 7 March 2015]‘Turkish guest workers transformed German society’, Deutsche Welle, 30 October <http://www.dw.de/turkish-guest-workers-transformed-german-society/a > [Accessed 7 March 2015]‘Urteil in Bayern: Schülerin darf mit Gesichtsschleier nicht zum Unterricht‘, Spiegel, 25 April <http://www.spiegel.de/schulspiegel/wissen/schleier-urteil-schuelerin-in-bayern-darf-nicht-mit- niqab-in-schule-a html> [Accessed 9 March 2015]Weber, B.M., Violence and gender in the "new Europe”: Islam in German culture (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013)‘Where Pegida came from and where it is going’, The Economist, 23 February <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/02/economist-explains-20> [Accessed 8 March 2015]