Presentation on theme: "Islam in Germany ADAM KOWALSKI, NICK GLANVILE, ALI STEWART."— Presentation transcript:
Islam in Germany ADAM KOWALSKI, NICK GLANVILE, ALI STEWART
‘Der Islam gehört zu Deutschland’ (Islam is part of Germany), Angela Merkel, 12 th January What do you think could have prompted Merkel to say this? What did Merkel mean when she said this?
Rationale To give you: A background of Germany’s Muslims. An overview of government initiatives towards Muslims. Use of selective examples to illustrate: The issues that Muslims face in Germany. The difference between perception and reality. Opposition to Islamic culture in Germany.
Presentation structure Brief history of Islam in Germany Guest worker recruitment and the new era of Muslim immigration (Turkey). Muslims in Germany today Civic integration Femininity and Masculinity, gender and gendered practices. Islam in public discourse. Pegida
Brief history of Islam In Germany Goethe had an interest in Islam and a high regard for the religion. German Empire link to the Ottoman Empire. German-Turkish alliance during the First World War. Foundation of the Berlin Islamic Community in 1922.
Guest worker recruitment in the post-war years. Turks (from 1961), Moroccans (from 1963) and Tunisians (from 1965). 3 million Muslims in Germany today. Prayer rooms, mosques and minarets have appeared in most large cities and many small towns. Legal issue of headscarves. Growing fears that the ‘minority’ is coming to dominate the ‘majority’.
Guest worker recruitment Post-war economy, demand for cheap labour. Turkish workers (amongst others) Treaty of 30 th October 1961, travelling expenses for Turkish workers are covered by the German government. Short-term basis. This changed later for economic reasons, and workers were allowed to bring their families. One million guest workers had arrived by Der Spiegel, April 1964
Turkey as a country of emigration Traditionally known as a country of emigration. Traditionally known as a country of emigration. Guest workers Guest workers Family reunification schemes in the 1980s and 1990s Family reunification schemes in the 1980s and 1990s Asylum (Kurds). Asylum (Kurds). Not just emigration to Western Europe. Not just emigration to Western Europe. Damaging to the Turkish economy, many skilled workers left the country. Damaging to the Turkish economy, many skilled workers left the country.
Muslims in Germany today Largest Muslim population in Western Europe after France. Most of Germany’s Muslims live in the West of the country. Nordrhein Westphalen Baden-Württemberg Different groups of Muslims, e.g. Sunnis, Alevites Only a third of Germany’s Muslims pray daily.
Many German Muslims support: Gay marriage Abortion The right to die. The stereotypes of a backward and repressive religion are inaccurate. Die Welt, 8 January 2015
Weber, B.M (2013) Two main practices covered in the text Violence (both domestic and familial) Headscarves Gender and gendered practices
Honour based Backwards = links to Islamophia Gendered Position of women’s bodies in society Media portrayals Violence against Muslim women is very successful in German media Focus shift from class/national difference to religious/cultural difference What effect could this have on audiences? Headscarf as violence Symbolised as inherent to domestic violence Violence
Hijab martyr Banning of headscarves Clash of cultures debate Headscarves
‘After nearly 50 years, Germany's institutions still react rather helplessly to the permanent changes that have taken place in society.’ ‘Self-proclaimed representatives of Islam… despite their openly Islamistic tendencies -- have accomplished a great deal and are demanding much more.’ ‘ This is a distressing development for a large number of integrated Muslims, many of whom emigrated to Germany to flee precisely this type of fundamentalism. ’ ‘Critics of the government's approach say that it would be better to gauge concessions toward Islam to the needs and interests of these Muslims. They suggest that by bolstering the more moderate elements of Islam, it will be possible to shape a common future with their help.’ U.S. Stegemann, professor for Islamic studies at the University of Marburg.
Procedures for civic integration. Michalowski (2014) text. Are Muslims specifically targeted by integration measures ? 45 Stunden Deustchland, a booklet used in the course given to migrants from most non-EU countries. The French and German examples are good indicators of how three forms of institutions are seen to be threatened by Muslim immigration: Separation of church and state Gender equality Individual liberties. Implicit targeting of Muslims in these civic integration programmes.
Michalowski distinguishes between two different approaches to civic integration: Socio-cultural norms Juridicio- political norms. Difficulty in striking a balance between: Making citizenship meaningful for immigrants Cultural assimilation. Turks are less effectively integrated than other groups and are more likely to be: Poorly educated Unemployed Underpaid
What type of civic integration do you believe is the most beneficial? Who has the main responsibility to integrate migrants: Government? Migrants themselves? The German people?
Islam in public discourse High-profile negative news stories of Islamist extremism. Effect on the public perception of Muslims as a whole. ‘Often no proper differentiation is made by the German public between issues of Islamic terrorism, Islamism, and the general phenomenon of immigrant crime. This, as well as the general negative attitude towards Muslims, seems to be foremost due to negative political and media discussions.’ ‘Islam in Germany’, Euro Islam
Association of Islam with: Crime Terrorism The oppression of women Honour killings Backwardness Intolerance. Homogenous group Focus on honour killings, forced marriage, mosque constructions and banning the veil.
The veil has been, like in other European countries, subject to debate in the media. It is not banned in Germany, because it is claimed that this would be unconstitutional. Bavarian court ruling in 2014.
Pegida ‘Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes‘ Dresden-based popular protest against the ‘Islamification’ of Germany and Europe. Weekly demonstrations in Dresden, which have spread across Germany. Counter-protests usually outnumber the Pegida protests. Lutz Bachmann
Wir sind nicht "politisch korrekt"...! JEDER Mensch, gleich welcher Nationalität oder Religion ist uns willkommen !!! Wir wollen einfach KEINE GEWALT auf unseren Straßen wie z.B. in Hamburg oder Celle !!! Unsere Städte, Dörfer und Gemeinden sind KEINE Orte zum Austragen von Stellvertreter- oder Glaubenskriegen!!! Wir akzeptieren KEINE HETZE von irgendwelchen Salafisten gegen "Ungläubige" oder Andersgläubige... Wir akzeptieren in Europa keinerlei "Tätigkeiten" von IS, PKK, al Kaida oder wie sie alle heißen! Die Trennung von Staat und Kirche war und ist ein Erfolg in Europa. Der "Vater der Türken", Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, führte die Türkei, nach der Trennung von Staat und Religion, mit Erfolg in die Moderne und hat damit bewiesen, dass dazu auch ein muslimisch geprägtes Land in der Lage ist! Extracts from the Pegida Facebook page
How would you describe the ‘typical’ Pegida protester? Why do think Pegida has emerged and what future do you think it has? Pegida protest, 12 th January 2015
Middle-aged male from the east of Germany. Wider frustration with European integration, immigration and out-of- touch government. The AfD as another example of this in Germany.
Was the guest worker programme a good thing for Germany? Is Islam compatible with Western culture? Is Islam ‘part of’ Germany?
Bibliography (Part 1) Betz, M. and Eichinger, R., ‘Was Deutsche wirklich über Integration und Islam denken’, 10 October 2010 [Accessed 7 March 2015] ‘Dürfen wir vorstellen: Deutschlands Muslime’, die Zeit, 29 January 2015 [Accessed 7 March 2015] Huggler, J., ‘Germany's 'Islamisation' marches: how the pro- and anti-Pegida rallies measured up’, The Telegraph, 13 January 2015 [Accessed 9 March 2015] ‘Islam in Germany’, Euro-Islam [Accessed 7 March 2015] Kirisci, K., ‘Turkey: A Transformation from Emigration to Immigration’, Migration Policy Institute, 1 November 2003 [Accessed 9 March 2015] Löbbert, R., ‘57 Prozent der Deutschen fühlen sich vom Islam bedroht‘, die Zeit, 8 January 2015 [Accessed 7 March 2015] Michalowski, I., ‚Legitimizing Host Country Institutions: A Comparitive Analysis of the Content of Civic Education Courses in France and Germany‘, in European States and Their Muslim Citizens: The Impact of Institutions on Perceptions and Boundaries, ed. By J.R. Bowen et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), pp
Bibliography (Part 2) Peters, F., ‚Ablehnung des Islam in Deutschland wächst‘, Die Welt, 8 January 2015 [Accessed 9 March 2015] Stegemann, U.S., ‘Allah and the Occident: How Islam Came to Germany’, Spiegel, 16 June 2008 [Accessed 7 March 2015] ‘Turkish guest workers transformed German society’, Deutsche Welle, 30 October 2011 [Accessed 7 March 2015] ‘Urteil in Bayern: Schülerin darf mit Gesichtsschleier nicht zum Unterricht‘, Spiegel, 25 April 2014 [Accessed 9 March 2015] Weber, B.M., Violence and gender in the "new Europe”: Islam in German culture (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013) ‘Where Pegida came from and where it is going’, The Economist, 23 February 2015 [Accessed 8 March 2015]