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Who were the “First Georgians” The first humans in Georgia appeared about 13,000 years ago -. Nomadic hunters using tools made from stone, these people were called Paleo Indians.
What other Native American cultures existed prior to European exploration? Archaic – lived in Georgia beginning 10,000 years ago to 3,000 years ago Hunters, gatherers, fisherman – used bone and stone tools – built permanent settlements Woodland – lived in Georgia from 1000 BC to 1000 AD Built mounds of earth for burial sites or religious ceremonies Planted Crops, made pottery Mississippian – 800 to 1600 AD – craftsmen, farmed on large scale – lived in towns governed by chiefs who lived in temples on top of mounds
Paleo is to nomadic:Archaic is to 1.First to build permanent settlements 2.Planted crops 3.Farmed on large scale 4.Lived in towns
Which group planted crops and made pottery? 1.Mississippian 2.Paleo 3.Woodland 4.Archaic
Which early Native American culture was the most advanced? 1.Woodland 2.Mississippian 3.Archaic 4.Paleo
A review of early European exploration Hernando De Soto – 1540 Led 600 soldiers inland from Gulf of Mexico hoping to find gold In 1565, the Spanish established St. Augustine as their first permanent settlement in North America In 1566, the Spanish moved north to St. Catherine’s island (that’s near us!). They later set up other BARRIER ISLAND sites such as Sapelo, St. Simons, and Cumberland Island. Why did they set up these settlements? Glory, God and Gold!
Who led the Spanish exploration into Georgia in 1540? 1.Jimmy Carter 2.Hernando De Soto 3.Vasco De Gama 4.Samuel De Champlaine
The Spanish forced a new government and new religion on the Native Americans. What else did the Spanish bring? 1.Gold 2.Diseases, such as small pox 3.Vaccinations 4.The bow and arrow
Early explorers and their reasons for exploration Francis Coronado- 1541 – seeking gold – explored Southwestern US 1603 – French explorer Samuel de Champlain – fur trade English John Cabot 1497 explored Canada
Why did DeSoto explore Georgia? 1.He was searching for Indians to convert 2.He wanted to establish a settlement 3.He was searching for gold 4.He was mapping the area
James Oglethorpe desired to help citizens thrown into jail for debt. He worked to reform the system and came up with the idea to send the poor and unemployed to a new colony in America. In 1730, Oglethorpe asked the king for a charter of land in America.
Why did the King like the idea of a colony in Georgia? 1.The new colony would help England economically 2.It would serve as a “buffer”- protection between South Carolina and Spanish Florida 3.The poor and unemployed could apply to go to the colony 4.All of the above
The new trustees were not allowed to own land and could only govern the colony for 21 years. After that time, the land would be returned to the ruler of England (in other words, change from a trustee colony to a ROYAL COLONY)
What type of colony did Oglethorpe start? 1.Proprietary Colony 2.Trustee Colony 3.Royal Colony 4.Crown Colony
The name of the ship bringing Oglethorpe and the 35 families to Georgia was…… 1.Nina 2.Hesperus 3.Anne 4.Savannah
Who befriended Oglethorpe and helped establish peaceful relationships between the Indians and new settlers? 1.Yamacraw Indian Tomochichi 2.Pocohontas of the Algonquian Indians 3. Tecumseh 4.Chief Sitting Bull
Who was Mary Musgrove? 1.Daughter of Indian woman and English father, Mary served as Oglethorpe’s interpreter 2.Salzburger from Austria who immigrated 3.Jewish physician on Anne 4.Highland Scot who fought the Spanish
What other groups came to Oglethorpe’s colony? Salzburgers from Austria – in search of religious freedom (they were Lutheran) - raised silkworms, cattle Highland Scots – brave warriors who Oglethorpe brought in to help defend the colony Salzburgers settled in Ebenezer Highland Scots settled in Darien According to Oglethorpe’s charter, lawyers, slaves, catholics and rum were NOT ALLOWED
Which group settled in Darien? 1.Malcontents 2.Salzburgers 3.Highland Scots 4.Lawyers, slaves and catholics as they were not allowed
Place the following in date order A. St. Augustine established by the Spanish b. Mary Musgrove becomes interpreter for Oglethorpe c. The town of Darien is formed by Scottish immigrants d. Battle of Bloody Marsh 1.A,B,C,D 2.C,A,B,D 3.B,C,A,D 4.D,B,C,A
What did the malcontents accomplish? 1.Built forts to defend against Spanish invasion 2.Fought to legalize slavery, alcohol and land sales 3.Established settlements in Florida 4.All of the above
How did Georgia become a royal colony? 1.The trustees surrendered control of the colony in 1752 2.The English crown sent in the military to take control 3.The Spanish conquered the colony 4.After the Battle of Bloody Marsh, the colonists left
What crops were grown in the royal colonial period? 1.With slave labor now allowed, slaves planted rice, indigo, corn, peas, rye and tobacco 2.Sugar, grapes for wine 3.Silk, trees for paper 4.All of the above
Who were the Royal Governors? John Reynolds – First of REW 1754 to 1756 – had conflicts with legislature so king removed him Henry Ellis – Second of REW 1757 to 1760 - Showed colonists how to defend themselves, need for taxes, defenses Ellis hated Georgia climate – left in 1760 James Wright – Last of REW – Royal Governor 1760 to 1776 Popular governor who negotiated treaties with Indians, opened up millions of acres for settlement – Georgia grew and prospered rapidly
Who were the Royal Governors? 1.James Oglethorpe, Noble Venerable and Robert Castille 2.John Reynolds, Henry Ellis, James Wright 3.Leaders of Highland Scots, Salzburgers and colonists each sent a representative 4.King George and parliment
Name that governor…. Replaced by the King of England due to conflicts with colonial legislature 1.James Wright 2.Henry Ellis 3.John Reynolds 4.James Oglethorpe
Name that Governor – he wrote that the people of Savannah breathed “a hotter air than any other people on the face of the earth” and left due to health reasons 1.Henry Ellis 2.James Wright 3.John Reynolds 4.James Oglethorpe
Name that Governor…opened up land for settlement, made treaties 1.Henry Ellis 2.James Wright 3.John Reynolds 4.James Oglethorpe
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