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Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

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1 Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports
Idaho SWPBIS Training Institute

2 Objectives Describe the rationale behind a schoolwide approach to behavior support Outline the general and generic organization of the application of tiered behavioral supports Outline the organization and direction of this year’s Tier 1 training

3 Tier One Expanding Implementation Sustaining Efforts
Getting Started Overview, Schoolwide, Non-classroom, Data Decisions, Team Meetings, Team Planning Expanding Implementation Classroom, Escalation Cycle, Team Status Check, Team Planning Sustaining Efforts Individual Student, Secondary-group, Team Planning, Long-term Action Planning

4 Acknowledgements Students, educators, administrators, school staff, families Community of researchers, system changers, staff developers Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Offices of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of Education State Department of Education (SDE), Center for School Improvement & Policy Studies (CSI&PS), Special Education Statewide Technical Assistance (SESTA), Project Schools, Northwest PBIS (NWPBIS) PBIS – endorsed by OSEP (only schoolwide behavior program to be endorsed)

5 Purpose: Examine the features of a proactive systemic approach to preventing and responding to schoolwide discipline problems

6 Generic Model Schoolwide PBIS Team Coach State Leadership Team
Represents school, meets regularly Writes plan, trains school employees Coach Facilitates meetings Provides technical assistance to school Links school to state State Leadership Team Guides planning and development Coordinates training Comprises school teams/structure

7 SWPBIS Coaches Establish a network of highly skilled personnel who have: Fluency with PBIS systems and practices Capacity to deliver technical support Capacity to sustain team efforts Follow-up training throughout the year includes: Specialized topics Communication and problem-solving +Roles and Responsibilities of Coach & Administrator Ask Coaches to raise their hand +Expectations

8 Roles & Responsibilities
Please define the roles and responsibilities of: administrator coach team Ask teams to discuss and share out.

9 Positive School Climate
Maximizes academic engagement and achievement Minimizes rates of rule violating behavior Encourages acts of respectful and responsible behavior Organizes school functions to be more efficient, effective, and relevant Improves supports for students with disabilities and those placed at risk of educational failure If the schoolwide setting becomes more positive, predictable, preventive…that is, a positive schoolwide climate is established, the likelihood of achieving these outcomes is high. Of course, the real question is how to create durable school environments that enable a positive climate that maximizes achievement of these features.

10 The Learning Environment
Positive Environment Leads to… Negative Environment Leads to… Endorphins in bloodstream, which Generate feeling of euphoria Raise pain threshold Stimulate the frontal lobe so that the situation and learning objective are remembered Cortisol in bloodstream, which Raises anxiety level Shuts down processing of low-priority information (for example, the lesson objective) Focuses frontal lobe on the cause of the stress so that the situation is remembered, but not the learning objective Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011

11 Which comes first??? Academic problems often precede behavior problems
Provide time for responses (bullet points transition in). Be sure to hit these points: Most of challenging behavior in the classroom is intended to get the student out of work Teachers lose instructional time every class period due to student behavior Students with disabilities lose significantly more instructional time each year due to behavior Frame the cartoon via the growing importance of understanding and recognizing the relationship between academics and behavior Academic problems often precede behavior problems Behavior problems often precede academic problems Slide Time: 4 min

12 Creating a Positive Learning Environment
Behavior and academic achievement are inextricably linked. A student’s academic success in school is directly related to the student’s attention, engagement, and behavior. The higher the expectation for scholarly behaviors and the better the supports for students experiencing difficulties, whether mild, moderate, or severe – the more academic success can be achieved. (Buffman, Mattos, Weber, 2008) It is rare to find a student who demonstrates behavioral challenges who has not experienced academic frustrations in the past or is not currently experiencing academic frustrations. Too often we want to respond to misbehavior with punishment. Consider that the misbehavior may be a symptom of academic frustration, and be prepared to diagnose students’ academic needs as part of the solution.

13 Creating Positive Learning Environments
Discuss the following questions Does everyone in our school agree on why we are here? Does everyone really believe we can make a difference for all kids? In terms of making a difference, do we have a common schoolwide vision? Are clear and specific schoolwide systems in place to make our vision a reality? Are classroom plans in place that match the schoolwide systems? Are individual student support options in place? Do procedures in the office support the school, classroom, and individual plans? Does every adult talk about these plans openly, regularly, and systematically? Do we know, with measurable evidence, that the plans are making a difference? If our plans are not making a difference, are we willing to try something new? Participants have these question on a handout.

14 Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Transition 1 tier at time, giving participants time to discuss each one. One of the most important organizing components of PBIS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention. All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevent the established and occurrences of problem behavior. If done systematically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected. Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the schoolwide PBIS effort. If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are: Function-based Contextually appropriate and person-centered Strength-based and instructionally oriented Continuously evaluated and enhanced Linked to the schoolwide PBIS approach Tier 2 & 3: Handled by a small group of educators who are intensely trained. Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%

15 Level of Intensity of Response = Level of Intensity of Behavior
At the top of the pyramid, this is individualized work. The good news is that if we have developed a solid, positive foundation with the base of the pyramid, we will have more energy and resources to work with this small, challenging group of individuals. (Hierck, Coleman, Weber, p. 47, 2011) Remember: The green zone, yellow zone, and red zone are broad generalizations of behavior, not permanent labels attached to any one individual student.

16 Response to Intervention
Video: Explanation of RTI

17 Overview Emphasis will be placed on the processes, systems, and organizational structures that are needed to enable the accurate adoption, fluent use, and sustained application of these practices. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of data-based decision-making, evidence-based practices, and on-going staff development and support. To achieve this purpose, two emphases will be stressed. First…Second…(bullets transitioned in) Identifying evidence based practices for improving student behavior is relatively easy. The real challenge is enabling a school to: -make the best selection -maximize the best selection -maximize staff adoption -ensure accurate and consistent implementation -organize organization resources so durable implementation and accommodation occur

18 Model of Continuous Improvement
Plan Do Check Act Plan: Identify an opportunity and plan for change. Do: Implement the change on a small scale. Check: Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a difference. Act: If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess your results. If the change did not work, begin the cycle again.

19 Article Jigsaw Activity
Got it. I know, understand, and/or agree with this. This is really important or interesting. I don’t understand this, or this does not make sense to me. Assign participant a specific article. Each team will share out. This may be moved to the end of the day for “homework.”

20 Reduced number of ODRs means:
Returned instructional time Improved academic outcomes Reduced number of students receiving highest level of service

21 Example: Remind teams this is an “example” not actual school!

22 What does a reduction of 850 ODRs and 25 suspensions mean?
Savings in Administrative Time Savings in Student Instructional Time ODR = 15 minutes per event Suspension = 45 minutes per event 13,875 minutes 231 hours 29, 8-hour days ODR = 45 minutes per event Suspension = 216 minutes per event 43,650 minutes 728 hours 121, 6-hour school days

23 Idaho Elementary School Cost Benefit Worksheet
Student Time Regained: 6840 minutes 114 hours 14 days This reduction in ODRs results in recaptured time for students and administrators alike. Reduced office discipline referrals/susp. Returned instructional time Improved academic outcomes Reduced students receiving highest level of service Administrator Time Regained: 2280 minutes 38 hours 5 days

24 Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior
“GET TOUGH!” (practices) “Train and Hope” (systems) When problem behaviors occur and are unresponsive to general behavior management practices, two and ineffective responses commonly are observed.

25 “GET TOUGH!” Clamp down and increase monitoring Re-re-review rules
Extend continuum and consistency of consequences Establish “bottom line” When problem behavior does not improve, teachers intensify their response with the hope of getting the students attention, communicate the seriousness of the situation, and “punish” the student so the problem behavior will not occur again.

26 “GET TOUGH!” Negative Side Effects: Fosters environments of control.
Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior. Shifts accountability away from school. Devalues child-adult relationship. Weakens relationships between academic and social behavior programming. When the primary response to problem behavior is reactive and aversive, a number of negative side effects are possible. (A predictable, individual response, but…creates a false sense of security!)

27 Brainstorm your “GET TOUGH” practices.
Ask Participants to reference their school handbook/rules/expectations. Trainers: monitor table responses

28 Reactive Responses are Predictable
When we experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate relief and: Remove students Remove ourselves Modify physical environments Assign responsibility for change to students and/or others Basically, teachers increase the intensity of their responses to problem behavior to halt the problem behavior which is causing them great discomfort and angst. Even though the problem behavior doesn’t change, by removing the students (e.g., sending them from the room and/or to the office) they are removing this aversive condition. In the behavioral world, we say that the teachers’ behaviors have been reinforced by the removal or avoidance of an aversive condition. This situation is predictable and serious because we are likely to use the same strategy again to remove ourselves or the student from this aversive situation.

29 When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!”
Zero tolerance policies Increased surveillance Increased suspension and expulsion In-service training by expert Alternative programming When large numbers of students don’t respond to consequences, or problems occur systematically, “more severe” consequences are put in place to affect the problem behaviors. Our assumption is that by getting tougher, students will eventually “get it” and stop doing the problem behaviors. If they don’t we remove the student because they are unresponsive to our efforts. Again we are shaped into thinking that if the students’ behavior doesn’t improve, we can solve the problem by removing the student, which does make the situation less unpleasant.

30 A predictable, systemic response, but…
based on the erroneous assumption that students: Are inherently “bad” Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” Will be better tomorrow Transition in “based on the…” & bullet points Our assumption is that students are born with problem behavior, and that with a strong enough consequence we can change those behavior. But, the reality is that kids are not born with profanity in their language. Yes, some students might be “predisposed” to learn problem behaviors faster than others because of a variety of factors (e.g., disability, peer/adult models, trial-and-error, etc.).

31 Science of behavior has taught us that students:
Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences DO learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly and receiving positive feedback A continuum of consequences are needed to respond to problem behavior. However, a better approach is to emphasize a preventive, positive, and instructional approach. We know that: Students are not born with bad behaviors All behaviors (good and bad, prosocial/antisocial, academic/social) are acquired similarily Learning of and teaching social and academic behaviors aren’t achieved by using aversive consequences. In fact, the best approach is to prevent future occurrences of problem behavior is to teach prosocial behavior and arrangement opportunities for occurrences of prosocial behavior to be positive acknowledged or reinforced.

32 Consequence is NOT synonymous with punishment
Discipline Punishment Is student focused Shows students what they have done wrong Clarifies ownership of the problem Facilitates problem solving Seeks resolution and leaves dignity intact Is adult oriented Requires judgment Imposes power Arouses anger and resentment Invites more conflict The difference is that punishment is intended to control behavior, whereas interventions and consequences are designed to help students learn alternate behaviors. Interventions and consequences are best delivered within the framework of consistent schoolwide expectations. (Hierch, Coleman, & Weber, 2011)

33 “Train and Hope” Approach
React to identified problem Select and add practice Hire expert to train practice Expect and hope for implementation Wait for new problem If school staff can agree to adopt a positive and preventive approach to addressing problem behavior, the next step is figuring out how to give schools the practices, supports, and systems that would give them this capacity. However, the problem is that a common response is to arrange a one-time inservice event in which an outside expert arranges for the presentation of a practice, gets staff excited about a possible solution, and then leaves staff which the challenge of figuring out what to do with their excitement and new practice. A plan for adoption, accurate and sustained use, and monitoring and adopting for improved effectiveness and efficiency are not formally established. The results are poor (inconsistent, incomplete, etc.) implementation, loss of confidence in those who suggested a practice, a call for a different solution.

34 Positive Behavior Support
PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students. “EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS”

35 This figure represents the most important and defining elements of PBIS.
Outcomes are the most important because we must know where we are going, and they affect how data are used, how practices are selected, and how systems are developed and provided. Data are important for narrowing where we want to go, and evaluating whether we are getting there or not. Practices are important because they represent the specific means by which student behavior will be affected to achieve the outcomes. These practices, to the greatest extent possible, must be evidence-based; however, they must be adaptable to fit the local context (e.g., culture, community, demographics). Systems is often the least likely to be emphasized and formally organized, but they are important because they provide the support that school staff need to use the practice accurately and durably, collect and evaluate the data, and achieve the outcomes.

36 What Does PBIS Look Like?
Tier 1 >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them and give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, and acknowledged Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed behavior Function-based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior Data and team-based action planning and implementation are operating Administrators are active participants Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students

37 What Does PBIS Look Like?
Tier 2 & 3 Team-based coordination and problem-solving occurs Local specialized behavioral capacity is built Function-based behavior support planning occurs Person-centered, contextually, and culturally relevant supports are provided District/regional behavioral capacity is built Supports are instructionally oriented SWPBIS practices and systems are linked School-based comprehensive supports are implemented

38 PBIS is NOT: A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a general framework to preventing problem behavior. Limited to any particular group of students, but rather for all students. New, but rather is based on a long history of behavioral practices and effective instructional design strategies.

39 What is PBIS? Video: “What is PBIS?” (9 min.)

40 What is SWPBIS? A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for school to be effective learning environments for all students.

41 Evidence-based features of SWPBIS:
Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations. Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision making Continuum of intensive, individual interventions supports Implementation of the systems that support effective practices This can be used as your school’s checklist of “how-to” & “to-do”

42 The Impact of SWPBIS: Students: Office referrals
Reductions: Improvements: Students: Office referrals Suspensions and expulsions Referrals to Special Education Faculty and Staff: Faculty absenteeism Student engagement Academic performance Family involvement Consistency across faculty Classroom management Faculty retention Substitute performance/perception Ratings of faculty “effectiveness

43 SWPBIS as Prescribed SWPBIS team drives implementation of practices
Team uses student and staff input to inform the development of high efficiency systems of support for evidence-based practices Team collects and analyzes data Team meets monthly to move process forward

44 SWPBIS as Prescribed Monthly meetings (while developing first tier)
Program development Impact and implementation After first tier of support is established: Development of advanced tier interventions Identification of non-responders Monitor student progress and advanced tier implementation

45 The challenge is increasing schools’ capacity to:
Respond effectively, efficiently, and relevantly to a range of problem behaviors observed in schools Adopt, fit, integrate, and sustain research-based behavior practices Give priority to an unified prevention agenda Engage in team-based problem-solving Build SWPBIS knowledge and skill set (capacity) to respond to… Although these recommendations are commendable, we have been unsuccessful in giving schools the capacity to adopt, implement, and sustain their use of the process and systems, especially in these four areas. Discuss the old model (external coaches) and how/why it has led to the new model (internal school coaches).

46 School-wide Classroom Individual Non-classroom Student
Adapted from Horner (2009) Cal. State Fullerton, 2009

47 Schoolwide and Classroom-wide Systems
Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation

48 Effective Classroom Management Systems
Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive expectations Teach and encourage classroom routines and cues Use a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative adult-student interaction Supervise actively Redirect the minor, infrequent behavior errors Precorrect chronic errors frequently Increase student engagement through active participation strategies

49 Specific Setting Systems
Teach and encourage positive expectations and routines Supervise actively All staff: scan, move, interact Precorrect Provide positive reinforcement Connect this information to explicit instruction.

50 Individual Student Systems
Support behavioral competence at school and district levels Tailor function-based behavior support planning Use team and data-based decision making Utilize comprehensive person-centered planning and wraparound processes Deliver secondary social skills and self-management instruction Implement individualized instructional and curricular accommodations

51 PBIS Features Local Context and Culture Prevention Logic for
All Science of Human Behavior Evidence- Based Practices Systems Change and Durability Natural Implementers PBIS is more than just a set of practices or strategies. PBIS is a process and systems approach to effective and positive behavior support for all students and their families, and all those individuals who work with and in schools.

52 Prevention is… Decreasing development of new problem behaviors
Preventing increased severity of existing problem behaviors Eliminating triggers and maintenance of problem behaviors Teaching, monitoring, and acknowledging prosocial behavior Using a 3-tiered prevention logic that defines a continuum of support Designing schoolwide systems for student success

53 Prevention Logic for All
Walker et al., 1996 Decrease development of new problem behaviors Prevent worsening of existing problem behaviors Redesign learning & teaching environments to eliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviors Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior Our first job, as good behavior managers is always, always, always: PREVENTION! The above table does a good job of outlining the specific things we are looking to prevent. The take home message is that we want to PREVENT the development, worsening, and triggering of problem behavior in our classroom.

54 Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response (Repeat/review of slide) Activity: what do the 3 tiers look like at your school; transition 1 tier at time, giving participants time to discuss each one. Add interventions to post-its and share out on large poster Student success is linked to the degree to which academic and behavioral systems are in place for all students. As such the 3-tiered prevention logic has been applied to both behavioral and academic systems, and have been conceptualized and operationalized as an integrated system of support. Every effort should be made to blend schoolwide academic and behavioral systems to maximize academic and social behavior outcomes and implementation efficiencies. Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive 80-90%

55 Audit of Current Practices
TIER 3 List Individualized/Intensive practices provided to a few students for support TIER 2 List Strategic/Targeted practices provided to some students for support TIER 1 List Core practices provided to all students and intended to support most

56 Active Administrative Participation
Actively participate as a member of the leadership team Establishes PBIS initiative as one of the top three improvement plan priorities Commits to and invests in a 2-3 year implementation effort

57 Emphasizes Data-based Evaluation
Conduct self-assessment and action planning Evaluate self-improvement continuously Identify strengths and needs Plan and implement strategic dissemination School teams and educational leaders can not know where they are going or if they are getting there without information that is relevant and available. The schoolwide PBIS effort emphasizes data-based decision-making processes that are relevant, efficient, and effective.

58 Implementation Challenges
Multiple, overlapping, and competing initiatives Overemphasis on conceptualization, structure, and process Under-emphasis on data-based decision making Failure to build competence for accurate and sustained implementation Reluctance to eliminate practices and systems that are not effective, efficient, and relevant Low rates of regular positive acknowledgements and celebrations The features and process of a schoolwide PBIS approach has been shaped by a number of challenges that are associated with any school reform efforts. (Work Smarter Not Harder)

59 Brainstorm potential challenges and suggest effective strategies.
Suggested Strategy Discussion Prompt: Ask groups to brainstorm potential challenges and suggest effective strategies. (Remind Teams NOT to get stuck in the “Challenges” column.)

60 At the end of this year you should feel like…
There is room for improvement but we have the basics in place and have a basis for identifying non-responders. We are teaching desired behaviors to all student in all settings. For the most part, our teachers support implementation (80%). Our system for supporting the behavior of students is sustainable. \

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