Presentation on theme: "Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports"— Presentation transcript:
1Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Idaho SWPBIS Training Institute
2ObjectivesDescribe the rationale behind a schoolwide approach to behavior supportOutline the general and generic organization of the application of tiered behavioral supportsOutline the organization and direction of this year’s Tier 1 training
3Tier One Expanding Implementation Sustaining Efforts Getting StartedOverview, Schoolwide, Non-classroom, Data Decisions, Team Meetings, Team PlanningExpanding ImplementationClassroom, Escalation Cycle, Team Status Check, Team PlanningSustaining EffortsIndividual Student, Secondary-group, Team Planning, Long-term Action Planning
4AcknowledgementsStudents, educators, administrators, school staff, familiesCommunity of researchers, system changers, staff developersInstitute of Education Sciences (IES), Offices of Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S. Department of EducationState Department of Education (SDE), Center for School Improvement & Policy Studies (CSI&PS), Special Education Statewide Technical Assistance (SESTA), Project Schools, Northwest PBIS (NWPBIS)PBIS – endorsed by OSEP (only schoolwide behavior program to be endorsed)
5Purpose:Examine the features of a proactive systemic approach to preventing and responding to schoolwide discipline problems
6Generic Model Schoolwide PBIS Team Coach State Leadership Team Represents school, meets regularlyWrites plan, trains school employeesCoachFacilitates meetingsProvides technical assistance to schoolLinks school to stateState Leadership TeamGuides planning and developmentCoordinates trainingComprises school teams/structure
7SWPBIS CoachesEstablish a network of highly skilled personnel who have:Fluency with PBIS systems and practicesCapacity to deliver technical supportCapacity to sustain team effortsFollow-up training throughout the year includes:Specialized topicsCommunication and problem-solving+Roles and Responsibilities of Coach & AdministratorAsk Coaches to raise their hand+Expectations
8Roles & Responsibilities Please define the roles and responsibilities of:administratorcoachteamAsk teams to discuss and share out.
9Positive School Climate Maximizes academic engagement and achievementMinimizes rates of rule violating behaviorEncourages acts of respectful and responsible behaviorOrganizes school functions to be more efficient, effective, and relevantImproves supports for students with disabilities and those placed at risk of educational failureIf the schoolwide setting becomes more positive, predictable, preventive…that is, a positive schoolwide climate is established, the likelihood of achieving these outcomes is high.Of course, the real question is how to create durable school environments that enable a positive climate that maximizes achievement of these features.
10The Learning Environment Positive Environment Leads to…Negative Environment Leads to…Endorphins in bloodstream, whichGenerate feeling of euphoriaRaise pain thresholdStimulate the frontal lobe so that the situation and learning objective are rememberedCortisol in bloodstream, whichRaises anxiety levelShuts down processing of low-priority information (for example, the lesson objective)Focuses frontal lobe on the cause of the stress so that the situation is remembered, but not the learning objectiveSousa & Tomlinson, 2011
11Which comes first??? Academic problems often precede behavior problems Provide time for responses (bullet points transition in).Be sure to hit these points:Most of challenging behavior in the classroom is intended to get the student out of workTeachers lose instructional time every class period due to student behaviorStudents with disabilities lose significantly more instructional time each year due to behaviorFrame the cartoon via the growing importance of understanding and recognizing the relationship between academics and behaviorAcademic problems often precede behavior problemsBehavior problems often precede academic problemsSlide Time:4 min
12Creating a Positive Learning Environment Behavior and academic achievement are inextricably linked. A student’s academic success in school is directly related to the student’s attention, engagement, and behavior. The higher the expectation for scholarly behaviors and the better the supports for students experiencing difficulties, whether mild, moderate, or severe – the more academic success can be achieved.(Buffman, Mattos, Weber, 2008)It is rare to find a student who demonstrates behavioral challenges who has not experienced academic frustrations in the past or is not currently experiencing academic frustrations. Too often we want to respond to misbehavior with punishment. Consider that the misbehavior may be a symptom of academic frustration, and be prepared to diagnose students’ academic needs as part of the solution.
13Creating Positive Learning Environments Discuss the following questionsDoes everyone in our school agree on why we are here?Does everyone really believe we can make a difference for all kids?In terms of making a difference, do we have a common schoolwide vision?Are clear and specific schoolwide systems in place to make our vision a reality?Are classroom plans in place that match the schoolwide systems?Are individual student support options in place?Do procedures in the office support the school, classroom, and individual plans?Does every adult talk about these plans openly, regularly, and systematically?Do we know, with measurable evidence, that the plans are making a difference?If our plans are not making a difference, are we willing to try something new?Participants have these question on a handout.
14Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseTransition 1 tier at time, giving participants time to discuss each one.One of the most important organizing components of PBIS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention.All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevent the established and occurrences of problem behavior. If done systematically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected.Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the schoolwide PBIS effort.If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are:Function-basedContextually appropriate and person-centeredStrength-based and instructionally orientedContinuously evaluated and enhancedLinked to the schoolwide PBIS approachTier 2 & 3: Handled by a small group of educators who are intensely trained.Universal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
15Level of Intensity of Response = Level of Intensity of Behavior At the top of the pyramid, this is individualized work. The good news is that if we have developed a solid, positive foundation with the base of the pyramid, we will have more energy and resources to work with this small, challenging group of individuals.(Hierck, Coleman, Weber, p. 47, 2011)Remember: The green zone, yellow zone, and red zone are broad generalizations of behavior, not permanent labels attached to any one individual student.
16Response to Intervention Video: Explanation of RTI
17OverviewEmphasis will be placed on the processes, systems, and organizational structures that are needed to enable the accurate adoption, fluent use, and sustained application of these practices.Emphasis will be placed on the importance of data-based decision-making, evidence-based practices, and on-going staff development and support.To achieve this purpose, two emphases will be stressed. First…Second…(bullets transitioned in)Identifying evidence based practices for improving student behavior is relatively easy. The real challenge is enabling a school to:-make the best selection-maximize the best selection-maximize staff adoption-ensure accurate and consistent implementation-organize organization resources so durable implementation and accommodation occur
18Model of Continuous Improvement PlanDoCheckActPlan: Identify an opportunity and plan for change.Do: Implement the change on a small scale.Check: Use data to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a difference.Act: If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess your results. If the change did not work, begin the cycle again.
19Article Jigsaw Activity Got it. I know, understand, and/or agree with this.This is really important or interesting.I don’t understand this, or this does not make sense to me.Assign participant a specific article. Each team will share out.This may be moved to the end of the day for “homework.”
20Reduced number of ODRs means: Returned instructional timeImproved academic outcomesReduced number of students receiving highest level of service
21Example:Remind teams this is an “example” not actual school!
22What does a reduction of 850 ODRs and 25 suspensions mean? Savings in Administrative TimeSavings in Student Instructional TimeODR = 15 minutes per eventSuspension = 45 minutes per event13,875 minutes231 hours29, 8-hour daysODR = 45 minutes per eventSuspension = 216 minutes per event43,650 minutes728 hours121, 6-hour school days
23Idaho Elementary School Cost Benefit Worksheet Student Time Regained:6840 minutes114 hours14 daysThis reduction in ODRs results in recaptured time for students and administrators alike.Reduced office discipline referrals/susp.Returned instructional timeImproved academic outcomesReduced students receiving highest level of serviceAdministrator Time Regained:2280 minutes38 hours5 days
24Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior “GET TOUGH!” (practices)“Train and Hope” (systems)When problem behaviors occur and are unresponsive to general behavior management practices, two and ineffective responses commonly are observed.
25“GET TOUGH!” Clamp down and increase monitoring Re-re-review rules Extend continuum and consistency of consequencesEstablish “bottom line”When problem behavior does not improve, teachers intensify their response with the hope of getting the students attention, communicate the seriousness of the situation, and “punish” the student so the problem behavior will not occur again.
26“GET TOUGH!” Negative Side Effects: Fosters environments of control. Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior.Shifts accountability away from school.Devalues child-adult relationship.Weakens relationships between academic and social behavior programming.When the primary response to problem behavior is reactive and aversive, a number of negative side effects are possible.(A predictable, individual response, but…creates a false sense of security!)
27Brainstorm your “GET TOUGH” practices. Ask Participants to reference their school handbook/rules/expectations.Trainers: monitor table responses
28Reactive Responses are Predictable When we experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate relief and:Remove studentsRemove ourselvesModify physical environmentsAssign responsibility for change to students and/or othersBasically, teachers increase the intensity of their responses to problem behavior to halt the problem behavior which is causing them great discomfort and angst. Even though the problem behavior doesn’t change, by removing the students (e.g., sending them from the room and/or to the office) they are removing this aversive condition. In the behavioral world, we say that the teachers’ behaviors have been reinforced by the removal or avoidance of an aversive condition.This situation is predictable and serious because we are likely to use the same strategy again to remove ourselves or the student from this aversive situation.
29When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policiesIncreased surveillanceIncreased suspension and expulsionIn-service training by expertAlternative programmingWhen large numbers of students don’t respond to consequences, or problems occur systematically, “more severe” consequences are put in place to affect the problem behaviors. Our assumption is that by getting tougher, students will eventually “get it” and stop doing the problem behaviors. If they don’t we remove the student because they are unresponsive to our efforts.Again we are shaped into thinking that if the students’ behavior doesn’t improve, we can solve the problem by removing the student, which does make the situation less unpleasant.
30A predictable, systemic response, but… based on the erroneous assumption that students:Are inherently “bad”Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”Will be better tomorrowTransition in “based on the…” & bullet pointsOur assumption is that students are born with problem behavior, and that with a strong enough consequence we can change those behavior. But, the reality is that kids are not born with profanity in their language.Yes, some students might be “predisposed” to learn problem behaviors faster than others because of a variety of factors (e.g., disability, peer/adult models, trial-and-error, etc.).
31Science of behavior has taught us that students: Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequencesDO learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly and receiving positive feedbackA continuum of consequences are needed to respond to problem behavior. However, a better approach is to emphasize a preventive, positive, and instructional approach.We know that:Students are not born with bad behaviorsAll behaviors (good and bad, prosocial/antisocial, academic/social) are acquired similarilyLearning of and teaching social and academic behaviors aren’t achieved by using aversive consequences.In fact, the best approach is to prevent future occurrences of problem behavior is to teach prosocial behavior and arrangement opportunities for occurrences of prosocial behavior to be positive acknowledged or reinforced.
32Consequence is NOT synonymous with punishment DisciplinePunishmentIs student focusedShows students what they have done wrongClarifies ownership of the problemFacilitates problem solvingSeeks resolution and leaves dignity intactIs adult orientedRequires judgmentImposes powerArouses anger and resentmentInvites more conflictThe difference is that punishment is intended to control behavior, whereas interventions and consequences are designed to help students learn alternate behaviors. Interventions and consequences are best delivered within the framework of consistent schoolwide expectations.(Hierch, Coleman, & Weber, 2011)
33“Train and Hope” Approach React to identified problemSelect and add practiceHire expert to train practiceExpect and hope for implementationWait for new problemIf school staff can agree to adopt a positive and preventive approach to addressing problem behavior, the next step is figuring out how to give schools the practices, supports, and systems that would give them this capacity.However, the problem is that a common response is to arrange a one-time inservice event in which an outside expert arranges for the presentation of a practice, gets staff excited about a possible solution, and then leaves staff which the challenge of figuring out what to do with their excitement and new practice. A plan for adoption, accurate and sustained use, and monitoring and adopting for improved effectiveness and efficiency are not formally established. The results are poor (inconsistent, incomplete, etc.) implementation, loss of confidence in those who suggested a practice, a call for a different solution.
34Positive Behavior Support PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students. “EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS”
35This figure represents the most important and defining elements of PBIS. Outcomes are the most important because we must know where we are going, and they affect how data are used, how practices are selected, and how systems are developed and provided.Data are important for narrowing where we want to go, and evaluating whether we are getting there or not.Practices are important because they represent the specific means by which student behavior will be affected to achieve the outcomes. These practices, to the greatest extent possible, must be evidence-based; however, they must be adaptable to fit the local context (e.g., culture, community, demographics).Systems is often the least likely to be emphasized and formally organized, but they are important because they provide the support that school staff need to use the practice accurately and durably, collect and evaluate the data, and achieve the outcomes.
36What Does PBIS Look Like? Tier 1>80% of students can tell you what is expected of them and give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, and acknowledgedPositive adult-to-student interactions exceed behaviorFunction-based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behaviorData and team-based action planning and implementation are operatingAdministrators are active participantsFull continuum of behavior support is available to all students
37What Does PBIS Look Like? Tier 2 & 3Team-based coordination and problem-solving occursLocal specialized behavioral capacity is builtFunction-based behavior support planning occursPerson-centered, contextually, and culturally relevant supports are providedDistrict/regional behavioral capacity is builtSupports are instructionally orientedSWPBIS practices and systems are linkedSchool-based comprehensive supports are implemented
38PBIS is NOT:A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a general framework to preventing problem behavior.Limited to any particular group of students, but rather for all students.New, but rather is based on a long history of behavioral practices and effective instructional design strategies.
40What is SWPBIS?A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for school to be effective learning environments for all students.
41Evidence-based features of SWPBIS: PreventionDefine and teach positive social expectations.Acknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision makingContinuum of intensive, individual interventions supportsImplementation of the systems that support effective practicesThis can be used as your school’s checklist of “how-to” & “to-do”
42The Impact of SWPBIS: Students: Office referrals Reductions:Improvements:Students:Office referralsSuspensions and expulsionsReferrals to Special EducationFaculty and Staff:Faculty absenteeismStudent engagementAcademic performanceFamily involvementConsistency across facultyClassroom managementFaculty retentionSubstitute performance/perceptionRatings of faculty “effectiveness
43SWPBIS as Prescribed SWPBIS team drives implementation of practices Team uses student and staff input to inform the development of high efficiency systems of support for evidence-based practicesTeam collects and analyzes dataTeam meets monthly to move process forward
44SWPBIS as Prescribed Monthly meetings (while developing first tier) Program developmentImpact and implementationAfter first tier of support is established:Development of advanced tier interventionsIdentification of non-respondersMonitor student progress and advanced tier implementation
45The challenge is increasing schools’ capacity to: Respond effectively, efficiently, and relevantly to a range of problem behaviors observed in schoolsAdopt, fit, integrate, and sustain research-based behavior practicesGive priority to an unified prevention agendaEngage in team-based problem-solvingBuild SWPBIS knowledge and skill set (capacity) to respond to…Although these recommendations are commendable, we have been unsuccessful in giving schools the capacity to adopt, implement, and sustain their use of the process and systems, especially in these four areas.Discuss the old model (external coaches) and how/why it has led to the new model (internal school coaches).
46School-wide Classroom Individual Non-classroom Student Adapted from Horner (2009) Cal. State Fullerton, 2009
47Schoolwide and Classroom-wide Systems Identify a common purpose and approach to disciplineDefine a clear set of positive expectations and behaviorsImplement procedures for teaching expected behaviorDifferentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behaviorDifferentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behaviorImplement procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation
48Effective Classroom Management Systems Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive expectationsTeach and encourage classroom routines and cuesUse a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative adult-student interactionSupervise activelyRedirect the minor, infrequent behavior errorsPrecorrect chronic errors frequentlyIncrease student engagement through active participation strategies
49Specific Setting Systems Teach and encourage positive expectations and routinesSupervise activelyAll staff: scan, move, interactPrecorrectProvide positive reinforcementConnect this information to explicit instruction.
50Individual Student Systems Support behavioral competence at school and district levelsTailor function-based behavior support planningUse team and data-based decision makingUtilize comprehensive person-centered planning and wraparound processesDeliver secondary social skills and self-management instructionImplement individualized instructional and curricular accommodations
51PBIS Features Local Context and Culture Prevention Logic for AllScience ofHumanBehaviorEvidence-BasedPracticesSystemsChange andDurabilityNaturalImplementersPBIS is more than just a set of practices or strategies. PBIS is a process and systems approach to effective and positive behavior support for all students and their families, and all those individuals who work with and in schools.
52Prevention is… Decreasing development of new problem behaviors Preventing increased severity of existing problem behaviorsEliminating triggers and maintenance of problem behaviorsTeaching, monitoring, and acknowledging prosocial behaviorUsing a 3-tiered prevention logic that defines a continuum of supportDesigning schoolwide systems for student success
53Prevention Logic for All Walker et al., 1996Decrease development of new problem behaviorsPrevent worsening of existing problem behaviorsRedesign learning & teaching environments to eliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviorsTeach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behaviorOur first job, as good behavior managers is always, always, always: PREVENTION! The above table does a good job of outlining the specific things we are looking to prevent.The take home message is that we want to PREVENT the development, worsening, and triggering of problem behavior in our classroom.
54Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response(Repeat/review of slide)Activity: what do the 3 tiers look like at your school; transition 1 tier at time, giving participants time to discuss each one. Add interventions to post-its and share out on large posterStudent success is linked to the degree to which academic and behavioral systems are in place for all students. As such the 3-tiered prevention logic has been applied to both behavioral and academic systems, and have been conceptualized and operationalized as an integrated system of support.Every effort should be made to blend schoolwide academic and behavioral systems to maximize academic and social behavior outcomes and implementation efficiencies.Universal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
55Audit of Current Practices TIER 3List Individualized/Intensive practices provided to a few students for supportTIER 2List Strategic/Targeted practices provided to some students for supportTIER 1List Core practices provided to all students and intended to support most
56Active Administrative Participation Actively participate as a member of the leadership teamEstablishes PBIS initiative as one of the top three improvement plan prioritiesCommits to and invests in a 2-3 year implementation effort
57Emphasizes Data-based Evaluation Conduct self-assessment and action planningEvaluate self-improvement continuouslyIdentify strengths and needsPlan and implement strategic disseminationSchool teams and educational leaders can not know where they are going or if they are getting there without information that is relevant and available. The schoolwide PBIS effort emphasizes data-based decision-making processes that are relevant, efficient, and effective.
58Implementation Challenges Multiple, overlapping, and competing initiativesOveremphasis on conceptualization, structure, and processUnder-emphasis on data-based decision makingFailure to build competence for accurate and sustained implementationReluctance to eliminate practices and systems that are not effective, efficient, and relevantLow rates of regular positive acknowledgements and celebrationsThe features and process of a schoolwide PBIS approach has been shaped by a number of challenges that are associated with any school reform efforts.(Work Smarter Not Harder)
59Brainstorm potential challenges and suggest effective strategies. Suggested StrategyDiscussion Prompt: Ask groups to brainstorm potential challenges and suggest effective strategies.(Remind Teams NOT to get stuck in the “Challenges” column.)
60At the end of this year you should feel like… There is room for improvement but we have the basics in place and have a basis for identifying non-responders.We are teaching desired behaviors to all student in all settings.For the most part, our teachers support implementation (80%).Our system for supporting the behavior of students is sustainable.\