Presentation on theme: "1 Physiology Exam 2 Comprehensive Study. 2 Where is the subdural space located?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Physiology Exam 2 Comprehensive Study
2 Where is the subdural space located?
3 Within the Cranium, between the Dura mater and the Arachnoid membrane
4 What is located inside of the subdural space?
5 Cerebrospinal fluid
6 What is an area of folded muscle membrane with Ach receptors clustered at the top of each fold (active site)?
7 Motor end plate
8 What enzyme rapidly deactivates ACh by degrading it into acetyl and choline?
9 acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
10 What is the affect on the activity of a neuron in the event of blocking the ability for retrograde flow in an axon?
11 The soma can’t respond to changes in the DISTAL END of the neuron.
12 True or False? One function of the nervous system is to direct activities that continue for extended periods such as growth and pregnancy.
14 True or False? During a sleep cycle a person alternates between REM sleep and deep wave sleep.
16 True or False? Sleep is an easily reversible state of inactivity.
18 True or False? Sleep is now considered an active state, requiring neuronal activity.
20 True or False? Sleep is characterized by lack of interaction with the external environment.
22 Which lobe would one expect to find the primary sensory cortex?
23 Parietal lobe
24 On which lobe would you expect to fine the Auditory cortex?
25 Temporal lobe
26 The Gustatory cortex is associated with which sense?
28 Which lobe would one expect to find the primary MOTOR cortex?
29 Frontal lobe
30 True or False? Ganglia exist in the CNS in the Spinal Cord.
31 False. Ganglia exist outside of the CNS (spinal cord) in the PNS.
32 What is the equivalent ganglia structure inside the CNS?
34 In the spinal cord, where is gray matter and white matter located (inside or out)?
35 The spinal cord has gray matter on the inside and white matter on the outside.
36 Does the spinal cord use a dorsal or ventral motor root?
38 ___ matter consist of unmyelinated never cell bodies, dendrites, and axon terminals.
39 Gray matter consist of unmyelinated never cell bodies, dendrites, and axon terminals.
40 At the resting membrane potential; is the membrane more permeable to Na or K?
42 What type of receptors bind to ACh, open monovalent cation channels, and are found on skeletal muscles at the neuromuscular junction?
43 Nicotinic receptors
44 What is the name for the event when the cell becomes less negative due to an influx of sodium ions?
46 The high speed movement of and action potential through the axon is called what?
48 What is the absolute refractory period?
49 A period of 2 msec when a second action potential cannot be triggered no matter how large the stimulus.
50 What word would best describe and excitable tissue during resting membrane potential.
52 What word would best describe an excitable tissue above its threshold?
54 What word would best describe an excitable tissue below its resting membrane potential?
56 What word would best describe an excitable tissue above 0 mV?
58 What is the outermost connective tissue covering the spinal nerves?
60 What are braches that sometimes occur along the length of an axon called?
62 What is the region where an axon terminal meets its target cell called?
64 An IPSP (Inhibitory postsynaptic potential) is associated with what?
66 An EPSP (Excitatory postsynaptic potential) is associated with what?
68 The principal that states all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials is know as what?
69 All or None
70 Where are the major centers concerned with automic control of breathing, blood pressure, heart rates located?
71 Medulla Oblongata
72 In which of the following would the rate of impulse conduction be the greatest? -myelinated fiber 20 microns in diameter -myelinated finber 2 microns in diameter
73 myelinated fiber 20 microns in diameter
74 n which of the following would the rate of impulse conduction be the greatest? -myelinated fiber 20 microns in diameter -myelinated fiber 2 microns in diameter
75 myelinated fiber 20 microns in diameter
76 How does Hypocacemia affect the function of the nervous system?
77 Less neurotransmitter can be released in response to an action potential
78 The dorsal root ganglia contain what?
79 Cell bodies of sensory neurons
80 Astrocytes have what major functions?
81 -Induce formation of the blood-brain barrier -Are important in the repair of brain injuries and neural scar formation -Take up excess K+ from brain ECF -Physically support neurons
82 What is Dura mater?
83 Outer membrane of the meninges
84 What is Pia mater?
85 Inner most membrane of the meninges, delicate, contains many blood vessels.
86 What is the Arachnoid?
87 The middle membrane of the meninges
88 What is Subarchnoid space?
89 Fluid filled space beneath the Arachnoid membrane of the skull
90 What is Ventricles?
91 Hollow spaces in the brain filled with circulating cerebrospinal fluid
92 What is the difference between electronic and saltatory conduction?
93 Saltatory conduction requires the presence of myelin
94 What cranial nerves control eye movements?
95 III, IV, VI
96 What ion has a higher concentration in cerebrospinal fluid than in blood?
98 The 3 rd and 4 th ventricles are linked by what?
99 Mesencephalic aqueduct
100 Excess cerebrospinal fluid is drained into where?
101 Superior sagittal sinus
102 Which nerve fibers will have the highest conduction velocity, a smaller unmyelinated fiber or a larger myelinated fiber?
103 Larger myelinated fiber
104 A second nerve impulse cannot be generated until :
105 The membrane potential has been reestablished
106 What are graded potentials?
107 Local changes in the membrane potential that occur in varying degrees of magnitude and serve as short distance signals
108 What ion is needed to initiate the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft?
110 Where are Interneurons found?
111 ONLY in the CNS
112 The brainstem consist of :
113 Midbrain, Medulla, Pons
114 What is a target receptor for preganglionic neurons?
115 Cholinergic Nicotinic receptor
116 What would be a result of the ventral root of the spinal nerve being cut?
117 Complete loss of voluntary movement
118 What two division of the efferent side of the PNS?
119 Somatic motor neurons and Autonomic neurons
120 Preganglionic fibers of oarasympathetic neurons can be found in all of the following cranial neurons EXCEPT:
122 Acetylcholine is released from the axon terminal, a skeletal muscle is triggered to contract, and the response is always excitatory. These events happen as a result of what?
123 A somatic motor neuron fires an action potential.
124 Describe two ways a cell can become hyperpolarized.
125 I.K+ efflux when K+ becomes more permeable, making the cell more negative II.Influx of Cl- making inside of cell more negative
126 Explain why multiple sclerosis negatively affects motor control.
127 I.This is a demyelinating disease. Conduction in Myelinated Axons are faster. Damage to Myelin means ion flow out of the cytoplasm and slower conduction because the amount of membrane in contact with ECF is increased.
128 List the anatomic and functional categories of neurons; Anatomic & Functional.