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Neurotransmitters 4 major Categories 4) Neuropeptides 1) ACh 2) Amino Acids 3) Biogenic Amines.

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Presentation on theme: "Neurotransmitters 4 major Categories 4) Neuropeptides 1) ACh 2) Amino Acids 3) Biogenic Amines."— Presentation transcript:

1 Neurotransmitters 4 major Categories 4) Neuropeptides 1) ACh 2) Amino Acids 3) Biogenic Amines

2 2) Amino Acids Autonomic N.S. - Parasympathetic - Sympathetic Somatic N.S. 1) ACh 3) Biogenic Amines 4) Neuropeptides Glutamate (aspartate) GABA (glycine) C.N.S. Norepinephrine (NE) and Epinephrine (E) Dopamine Serotonin (5-HT) Substance P Enkephalins and  Endorphins


4 Central Nervous System –Brain –Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System –Autonomic N.S. –Somatic N.S. The Road Ahead

5 Divisions of the Brain 1. Cerebrum 2. Diencephalon 3. Midbrain 4. Cerebellum 5. Pons 6. Medulla Oblongata

6 Central Nervous System: The Brain Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe

7 In General - our conscious mind enables us to: Functions of the Cerebrum Frontal Lobe - memory, behavior, personality, movement. Parietal Lobe - somatic sensory perception. Temporal Lobe - auditory and olfactory perception. Occipital Lobe - visual perception. Insula Lobe - visceral perception. Cerebrum has 5 Lobes Be aware of ourselves and sensations. Initiate and control voluntary movements. 

8 Cerebral Lobes

9 Homunculus - Motor and Sensory Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe

10 Broca’s area Wernike’s area

11 Thinking Hearing words Seeing words Speaking words


13 Left Brain Functions Right Brain Functions Uses logic Detail oriented Facts rule Words and language Present and past Math and science Comprehension Knowing Acknowledges Order/pattern perception Knows object name Reality based Forms strategies Practical Safe Uses feeling “Big picture” oriented Imagination rules Symbols and images Present and future Philosophy and religion Gets the “meaning” Believes Appreciates Spatial perception Knows object function Fantasy based Presents possibilities Impetuous Risk taking


15 The Limbic System = “Emotional Brain” e.g., Cingulate gyrus Allows us to shift between thoughts. Interprets pain as unpleasant. e.g., Amygdala Detects menacing glances from others. Emotional recognition of faces.

16 1) Epithalamus Diencephalon = 1) Epithalamus, 2) Thalamus and 3) Hypothalamus Includes the pineal gland. Secretes hormones melatonin and serotonin under influence of the hypothalamus.  * Dimethyl-tryptamine (DMT) also released from Pineal gland.

17 Melatonin and Sleep/Wake Cycle

18 2) Thalamus * Makes up 80% of the diencephalon. * Act as the “gateway” to cerebral cortex.

19 3) Hypothalamus Main visceral control center of the body T b and Sexual Dimorphism Circadian rhythms Olfaction and Memory Sweating Shivering Heart Rate and BP Satiety Feeding Thirst and Hunger Posterior Pituitary Adrenal gland

20 Hypothalamus Major Functions include the following: 3. Regulation of sleep-wake cycles 1. Regulation of body temperature Control of behavior Control of emotional responses 5. Control of the endocrine system 4. Control of the autonomic nervous system and Limbic System 2. Regulation of hunger and thirst sensations

21 Midbrain Cranial Reflexes e.g., visual reflexes.  e.g., auditory reflexes.

22 The Cerebellum Folia 

23 Functions of Cerebellum 1) Controls Postural Reflexes: 2) Produces Skilled Movements: - coordinates rapid, automatic adjustments of muscles in body to maintain equilibrium. - implements routines for fine tuned movements. Refines learned skills until action becomes routine.

24 The Brain Stem Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata

25 Pons * Contains the pontine respiratory centers. 

26 * Also contains the centers for hiccupping, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting and coughing Vital Centers in the MO include: 1. Cardiac Control Center 2. Vasomotor Center 3. Respiratory Center (Medullary) Medulla Oblongata 

27 Neurons controlling breathing have µ receptors, to which opiates, like heroin bind. This accounts for suppressive effect of opiates on breathing. Images show decreased dopamine (D 2 ) receptors in the brain of a person addicted to cocaine (vs. non-drug user control). *Can result in changes to motivation and diminish sensitivity to natural rewards

28 Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (Brain and Spinal Cord) (Nerves and Ganglia)

29 Peripheral Nervous System Somatic N.S.Autonomic N.S. Parasympathetic Division Sympathetic Division Skeletal Muscle Cardiac, Smooth Muscle and Glands

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