Presentation on theme: "Iranian Government Constitution of 1979 – Written by the Assembly of Religious Experts – Ended Monarchy – Regime Change to a Theocracy “Velayat-e Faqih”"— Presentation transcript:
Iranian Government Constitution of 1979 – Written by the Assembly of Religious Experts – Ended Monarchy – Regime Change to a Theocracy “Velayat-e Faqih” (The Guardianship of the Jurist) – Khomeini: in the absence of the Hidden Imam, the clergy have authority over the entire community.
Iranian System of Government
The Supreme Leader Head of state HOLDS ULTIMATE POWER Must be an ayatollah Appointed for LIFE by Assembly of Experts Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini ( ) Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (1989-present)
The Supreme Leader: Head of State Faqih: Leading Islamic Jurist – Interprets sharia Supervises policy implementation Sets general guidelines of Iran Screens presidential candidates Dismiss president Commander-in-Chief Appoints: – Head of Judiciary, Revolutionary Guard Commanders, and Media Directors, Friday Prayer Leaders Nominate 6 members of Guardian Council
Guardian Council 12 Members – 6 appointed by Supreme Leader (usually clerics) – 6 appointed by Head of Judiciary 6 year term Powers Veto legislation from Majles (violates Sharia) Vet candidates for all offices – 2012: 5,000 candidates registered for Parliamentary elections; 1/3 were disqualified. – 2009: 143 applied as candidates for president; 3 were approved.
Assembly of Religious Experts 86 members 8 year term Elected by the people Powers Select the Supreme Leader Can remove Supreme Leader
The Expediency Council 32 Members Appointed by Supreme Leader 3 year terms Powers Referees disputes between Majles and Guardian Council. Can initiate legislation Advisory body to Supreme Leader
The President Head of Government Elected by the people Candidacy approved by Supreme Leader and Guardian Council Pious Shiite Two, 4-year terms Ali Khamenei: Hashemi Rafsanjani: Mohammad Khatami: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: 05-Present
The President Powers Drafts Budget Proposes Legislation Signs Treaties and agreements Chairs National Security Council Appoints regional governors Head of Bureaucracy Selects cabinet members
“The Ayatollah Begs to Differ” Describe Ahmedinejad’s socioeconomic background. Give examples of how he deliberately projects his public image. To whom is he trying to appeal?
Majles Created in seats SMD Direct Elections 4 year term Powers Pass laws Appoint 6 members of Guardian Council (list created by Head of Judiciary) Approve budgets and treaties
Elections to Majles May campaign for one week Approval of Guardian Council Must win more than 25% of vote in SMD, or there is a run-off.
Political Parties Constitutionally permissible Heavily regulated by Guardian Council – Reformist party candidates are usually DQed. Highly unstable parties Organized around personalities, not issues Parties tend to form alliances. – “Principalists” support Khamenei
Results of Majles Election of 2012
“Delegate to others the enactment of unpopular measures and keep in their own hands the means of winning favors."
"To those seeing and hearing him, he should appear a man of compassion, a man of good faith, a man of integrity, a kind and religious man."
"When settling disputes between his subjects, he should ensure that his judgment is irrevocable; and he should be so regarded that no one ever dreams of trying to deceive or trick him."
Cultivate the Military
"When princes have thought more of ease than of arms they have lost their states. And the first cause of your losing it is to neglect this art; and what enables you to acquire a state is to be master of the art."
Maintain an External Enemy
"Many believe that when he has the chance an able prince should cunningly foster some opposition to himself so that by overcoming it he can enhance his own stature."
The Judiciary Chief Justice: – Appointed by Supreme Leader – 5-year term – Cleric Supreme Court – Highest appeals court Types of Law 1.Sharia: Islamic Law – Ultimate Legal Authority 2.Qanun: Law with no sacred basis. – Passed by Majles – Cannot contradict Sharia Strict interpretation of Sharia law. – High rate of executions – Approved torture
Iranian Military Over ½ million active troops – 8 th largest in world REVOLUTIONARY GUARD Elite part of armed forces (approx. 125,000) Established in 1979: loyalty to Khomeini – Answer directly to Supreme Leader Own ground forces, navy and air force Close ties to Ahmadinejad (Former member)
“The Ayatollah Begs to Differ” Aside from its military importance, describe the significance of the Revolutionary Guard. Influence over oil industry. Most non-clerical political leaders came from Guard. – Recruitment of political elite
Iranian Military Basij – Loosely organized volunteer militia – Controlled by the Revolutionary Guard – 300,000-1 million – Many are not even issued weapons – Paramilitary Enforcers