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01-3- S190- EP Convection Radiation Conduction.

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Presentation on theme: "01-3- S190- EP Convection Radiation Conduction."— Presentation transcript:

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3 01-3- S190- EP Convection Radiation Conduction

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5 Temperature Wind Increases supply of oxygen. Drives convective heat into adjacent fuels. Influences direction of spread and spotting. Carries away moist air replacing it with drier air. Dries fuels. Raises fuel moisture if the air contains moisture. Relative Humidity As RH increases, fuel moisture increases. Precipitation Increases fuel moisture

6 Strong Wind. Sudden changes in wind direction and velocity due to weather fronts. High, fast-moving clouds may indicate unusual surface winds. Unexpected calm may indicate wind shift. Thunderstorms above or close to the fire. Unusually high temperatures and low relative humidity. Dust devils and whirlwinds developing. Bent smoke column. Strong Wind. Sudden changes in wind direction and velocity due to weather fronts. High, fast-moving clouds may indicate unusual surface winds. Unexpected calm may indicate wind shift. Thunderstorms above or close to the fire. Unusually high temperatures and low relative humidity. Dust devils and whirlwinds developing. Bent smoke column. Weather Indicators

7 SOUTH NORTH Heavy fuels Shade Moist Light fuels Sunny Dry

8 Flame is closer to and preheating fuel Convection and Radiant Heat

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13 Steep slopes. Chutes, saddles, and box canyons which provide conditions for “chimney effect.” Narrow canyons may increase fire spread by radiant heat and spotting. Steep slopes. Chutes, saddles, and box canyons which provide conditions for “chimney effect.” Narrow canyons may increase fire spread by radiant heat and spotting. Topography Indicators

14 Fuel Characteristics Fuel Moisture Size and Shape Fuel Loading Horizontal Continuity Vertical Arrangement

15 The amount of water in a fuel expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of that fuel.

16 Light Fuels: ãLeaves ãGrass ãShrubs Light Fuels: ãLeaves ãGrass ãShrubs Heavy Fuels: ãLimbs ãLogs ãStumps Heavy Fuels: ãLimbs ãLogs ãStumps

17 The quantity of fuels in an area

18 Horizontal Continuity: ãUniform ãPatchy Horizontal Continuity: ãUniform ãPatchy Vertical Arrangement: ãGround ãSurface ãAerial Vertical Arrangement: ãGround ãSurface ãAerial

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20 Aerial Fuels Ladder Fuels Surface Fuels Ground Fuels

21 Unusually dry fuels. Large amount of light fuel (shrubs, grass, needles). Fuels exposed to direct sunlight. Fuels dried by prolonged drought. Ladder fuels that allow a surface fire to move into the crowns of shrubs or trees. Crown foliage dried by surface fire. Concentration of snags. Unusually dry fuels. Large amount of light fuel (shrubs, grass, needles). Fuels exposed to direct sunlight. Fuels dried by prolonged drought. Ladder fuels that allow a surface fire to move into the crowns of shrubs or trees. Crown foliage dried by surface fire. Concentration of snags. Fuel Indicators

22 Fire Behavior Terms

23 01-23-S190-EP Fire burning with a low flame and spreading slowly.

24 01-24-S190-EP Fire spread rapidly with a well defined head. *Click on image to play video

25 01-25-S190-EP Fire producing sparks or embers that are carried by the wind or convection that start new fires *Click on image to play video

26 01-26-S190-EP

27 01-27-S190-EP Sudden acceleration of fire spread or intensity, but of relatively short duration.

28 A spinning, moving column of ascending air rising within a vortex and carrying aloft smoke, debris, and flames.

29 01-29-S190-EP Fire advances from top-to-top of trees or shrubs more or less independently of the surface fire. *Click on image to play video

30 Keep an eye on the smoke column. Indicates direction of fire spread, location of spot fires, and changes in fire intensity. Many simultaneous fires starting or smoldering fires beginning to pick up in intensity. Fire begins to torch small groups of trees or shrubs. Frequent spot fires occurring. Fire-whirls beginning to develop inside the main fire. Crown fires. Fire Behavior Indicators

31 Offensive Defensive Combination S215-EP

32 03-32-S215-EP Attack and contain the fire

33 03-33-S215-EP Set up at the house Clear flammable material Protect house from flame and sparks

34 03-34-S215-EP If too much fire or no defensible space, LEAVE! Return after fire front passes

35 Structure engines at home for protection Attack fire and and drive flames away from house

36 # 1 # 2# 3 # 4 Structure Triage “Size-Up” S215-EP

37 5A-37-S215-EP

38 1. Well-irrigated area encircling structure for at least 30 feet on all sides. Plantings limited to carefully spaced low flammability species. 2. Provide added protection with “Fuel Breaks” like driveways, gravel walkways and lawns. Case Study of Witch and Guejito Fires

39 3. Keep vegetation pruned and limb trees 6–10 feet from ground. Remove leaf /needle clutter and dead and overhanging branches. 4. Periodically inspect your property, clearing dead wood and dense vegetation at a distance of at least 30 feet from your house. 5. Is the structure free of an attached wood fence? Footnote: Of the 241 homes impacted, 13 had wood shake roofs and all 13 were destroyed. A total of 89 were destroyed or damaged.

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42  Shut off natural gas and propane.  Place metal (not wooden) ladders against the lee side of your house.  Connect and turn off outside water hoses and nozzles.  If time permits, remove combustibles (patio furniture, firewood, etc.) within 30 feet of your home.  Close windows and doors to the house to prevent sparks and embers from blowing inside. Cover gable vents if time permits.  Close all doors inside the house to prevent draft.  Turn OFF fans, air conditioner, furnace.

43  Move furniture from windows.  Take down your drapes and curtains and close all blinds to deflect heat.  Fill all bathtubs, sinks and other containers with water to deflect heat.  Leave exterior lights on so responders can find your home at night.  Put on natural fiber clothing and take your 72-Hour kit with you.  Leave front door unlocked.  Put a white flag (towel, pillow case, etc.) outside where it can be seen from the roadway.

44 Black Forest Fire 2013 – Video courtesy of Colorado Springs Fire Department

45 Questions?


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