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Federalist Paper 10 James Madison James Madison Patrick Henry and others: the U. S. was too large to be effectively governed by a strong large to be effectively.

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Presentation on theme: "Federalist Paper 10 James Madison James Madison Patrick Henry and others: the U. S. was too large to be effectively governed by a strong large to be effectively."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Federalist Paper 10 James Madison James Madison Patrick Henry and others: the U. S. was too large to be effectively governed by a strong large to be effectively governed by a strong central government—tyranny would ensue central government—tyranny would ensue Madison wrote Federalist 10 as a counter Factions are political parties or interest groups groups

3 “By faction, I understand a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.” aggregate interests of the community.” “Among the numerous advantages promised by a well-constructed Union, none deserves by a well-constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence tendency to break and control the violence of faction.” of faction.”

4 Federalist Paper 10 “The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man: and we see them everywhere nature of man: and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil according to the different circumstances of civil society.... society.... A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government... an attach- religion, concerning government... an attach- ment to different leaders... have, in turn, ment to different leaders... have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex and oppress each other, than to disposed to vex and oppress each other, than to cooperate for their common good.” cooperate for their common good.”

5 “But the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal dis- factions has been the various and unequal dis- tribution of property. Those who hold, and those tribution of property. Those who hold, and those who are without property, have ever formed who are without property, have ever formed distinct interests in society.... distinct interests in society.... Cannot remove the causes of faction Embedded in human nature Only way: remove liberty “... relief is only to be sought in the means of controlling its effects.” controlling its effects.”

6 If a faction consists of a majority? “Either the existence of the same passion or interest in a majority, at the same time must be interest in a majority, at the same time must be prevented; or the majority... must be rendered, prevented; or the majority... must be rendered, by their number and local situation, unable to by their number and local situation, unable to concert and carry into effect schemes of concert and carry into effect schemes of oppression. If the impulse and the opportunity oppression. If the impulse and the opportunity be suffered to coincide, we well know, that be suffered to coincide, we well know, that neither moral nor religious motives can be neither moral nor religious motives can be relied on as an adequate control.” relied on as an adequate control.”

7 Is a pure democracy the answer? “... a pure democracy... can admit of no cure from the mischiefs of faction. A common cure from the mischiefs of faction. A common passion or interest will, in almost every case, passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole; a be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert, results from the communication and concert, results from the form of government itself; and there is form of government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party, or an obnoxious individual.” the weaker party, or an obnoxious individual.”

8 Differences between a democracy and a republic First: the delegation of the government in a republic, “to a small number of citizens elected republic, “to a small number of citizens elected by the rest; secondly, the greater number of by the rest; secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphere of country, over citizens, and greater sphere of country, over which the latter may be extended.” which the latter may be extended.”

9 Main advantage of a republic over a democracy Representatives are “a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true whose wisdom may best discern the true interest in their country, and whose patriotism interest in their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice, will be least likely to and love of justice, will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.” considerations.”

10 What can deter that advantage? “On the other hand, the effect may be inverted. Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may by intrigue, by or of sinister designs, may by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the corruption, or by other means, first obtain the suffrages, then then betray the interests, of suffrages, then then betray the interests, of the people.” the people.”

11 Federalist Paper 10 Today: political parties dominate voting in Congress as opposed to each individual representative voting based on his/her conscience or the good of all the people Sometimes, the Courts and their rulings have tended to favor minority factions over the will of the majority (as depicted in opinion polls) A common complaint today among people is the power of special interests and special interest groups.

12 Hey, who can tell me what an interest group is? Interest groups are organized groups that are typically a minority. They usually have intensely held concerns about issues pertinent to their group.

13 Oh, many, many things. They provide a way that the views of certain groups can be represented in political decision- making. Simoncini will tell you some ways on the next slide. So what do interest groups do?

14 Here are some of those ways They organize groups who share a concern or several concerns They provide a means of political participation participation They supply information to the public and to policy makers and to policy makers

15 As your textbook indicates, pluralist political scientists see interest groups not as a problem, but as an additional tool of democratic representation. Pluralist: American politics can best be understood in terms of the interaction, understood in terms of the interaction, conflict, and bargaining of groups. conflict, and bargaining of groups.

16 What do pluralist political scientists say are reasons that Interest groups are important instruments in maintaining democracy and aiding the public interest? Free elections are not enough to adequately communicate to political leaders the specific communicate to political leaders the specific wants and interests of the people on a continuous wants and interests of the people on a continuous basis. Interest groups can do that. basis. Interest groups can do that.

17 Interest groups are easy to create Government power in the U. S. is broadly dispersed, leaving governmental institutions dispersed, leaving governmental institutions remarkably porous and open to the entreaties remarkably porous and open to the entreaties of the many and diverse groups that exist of the many and diverse groups that exist Interest groups can allow all legitimate interests in society to have their views taken into account in society to have their views taken into account by some public official by some public official

18 Now, our text tells us that there Are private and public interests. Private: organizations and associations that try to gain protections or material advantages from government for members Public: advocates for a cause or ideology

19 Here are some examples of general categories of private interest groups. Business Trade associations Labor Unions

20 Also professional groups such as the American Bar Association Not THIS type of bar, Norm, he means the association of American lawyers. A BAR association??? Hey! I want to join that!!!

21 Hey, students. What is an advocacy group? An advocacy group is an interest group organized to support a cause or ideology.

22 Advocacy groups like The American Legion The NAACP The Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fund Education Fund NationalOrganization For Women

23 Also public advocacy groups such as: The Sierra Club Center for Auto Safety and Public Citizen led by Ralph Nader

24 Also public advocacy groups such as: The National Rifle Association

25 Public interest groups The Boy Scouts of America The American Cancer Society The American Heart Association Tax exempt groups

26 Foreign Policy Interest Groups Council on Foreign Relations The American-Israel Political Action Committee

27 Government Interest Groups National League of Cities National Governors Association National Education Association

28 In the United States Oh DO behave!!! Here are some groovy facts about interest groups that might interest you. 112,611,029 households 4,611 political action committees (1 Jan 2012) (1 Jan 2012) 5,945,274 corporations 16,300,000 labor union members

29 In the Washington, DC area there are 12,192 lobbyists, 35,000 people who try to affect government policies, and try to affect government policies, and about 260,000 people who work in about 260,000 people who work in the lobbying sector. the lobbying sector. The majority of lobbyists are lawyers or former legislators or legislative or former legislators or legislative staff members staff members 2008: $3.3 billion spent on lobbying the U. S. Congress the U. S. Congress Here are some more GROOVY facts!!!

30 Hey, how do interest groups work? Well, the main thing that they do is to influence government leaders to enact laws or appropriate money to help the cause of their interest. One thing they do is endorse candidates for office.

31 So, who can tell me the definition of endorsement? I can, David. After all, I did get a few during the 2008 election campaign. An endorsement is a public declaration of support for a candidate or proposition.

32 OK, Senator. I’ll buy that. Who can tell me why the endorsement of an interest group is important? Because, David, many members of interest groups practice single issue voting. Thank, Mr. Vice President, but who can give me a definition of single-issue voting?

33 Let me take that one, Joe. David, many people of an interest group vote for or against a candidate simply because of his or her views on one or more issues of great concern to the group. OK, Ms. Palin. But are endorsements and single- issue voting the only things that interest groups do?

34 I’ll answer that, Dave, and the answer is NO! In fact, the most important thing interest groups do on a continuing basis is lobbying, which is trying to persuade government policy makers to make particular decisions regarding legislation.

35 Thanks, Michelle, but where the term lobbying comes from? Hey, Dave—it goes back to the 1830s when people waited in lobbies of government buildings to talk to legislators.

36 And, Dave, today, lobbyists work for interest groups and political action committees in Washington and all state capitals. They provide information about issues, sometimes give gifts or money to the re-election campaign funds of political leaders, and do their best to show elected leaders that it is in their best interest to support the desired policies of that interest group.

37 Mr. President, why are there so many interest groups? Well, Dave, the First Amendment guarantees citizens freedom of speech, assembly and citizens freedom of speech, assembly and petition. Also, because of our form of petition. Also, because of our form of government, officials are relatively accessible government, officials are relatively accessible to interest groups. Also, there is no to interest groups. Also, there is no dominant center of decision-making. dominant center of decision-making.

38 Senator, what is disturbance theory? Dave, it’s a theory that says that interest groups originate with changes in the economic, social, or political environment that threaten the well-being of some segment of the population.

39 Senator, as you know, lobbyists are really salespeople for interest groups, except most of them are lawyers. Many are also former legislators. They also tend to be very well paid. In addition to providing information, they often also actually write bills that Members of Congress present for consideration by Congress.

40 So, Mr. President, is that the reason why we have so many earmarks? First off, David, let’s define an earmark. It is setting aside money in annual appropriations bills for pet projects for constituents and private interests. And the answer to your question is a definite yes!

41 And, students, today, there are laws that limit what lobbyists can do, particularly in Washington. For example, former Members of Congress cannot lobby in Washington for one year after leaving office. Also, there are strict limits on money and gifts that lobbyists can give as well as entertainment they can provide.

42 Good points, Mr. Vice President. Here’s an example of amounts of money some interest groups contribute. interest groups contributeinterest groups contribute

43 The Inside Game Lobbying—politics of insiders and the “old boy” network “old boy” network One-on-one persuasion Inside lobbyists are often former legislators who try to get the decision legislators who try to get the decision maker to understand and sympathize maker to understand and sympathize with the group’s point of view—best in with the group’s point of view—best in narrow and technical issues and it’s narrow and technical issues and it’s done outside the public view done outside the public view

44 The Inside Game Career civil servants and political appointees have great latitude because Congress often have great latitude because Congress often legislates broad policies, leaving it to the legislates broad policies, leaving it to the Executive branch to fill in specifics. Executive branch to fill in specifics. Interest groups can convey technical information, present results of research, help information, present results of research, help public officials deflect criticism, and show public officials deflect criticism, and show what the group wants is compatible with good what the group wants is compatible with good public policy. public policy.

45 The Inside Game Regarding the courts, attorneys for lobbies can file Amicus curiae (friend of the court) can file Amicus curiae (friend of the court) briefs. briefs. In those cases, lobbies are not parties to suits, but file an argument in support of one side or but file an argument in support of one side or the other in the hope of swaying the views of the other in the hope of swaying the views of a judge, justice or a group of judges or a judge, justice or a group of judges or justices in hopes that rulings will help their justices in hopes that rulings will help their lobby in the future lobby in the future

46 The Outside Game Interest groups try to mobilize grass roots support and public opinion and bring support and public opinion and bring them to bear on public officials them to bear on public officials Pre-printed letters from Interest Groups

47 PAC: political action committee Private organization Private organization Raise and distribute funds to candidates Raise and distribute funds to candidates Soft Money: general public education voter registration, voter mobilization Representational inequalities: not all segments of society are equally represented in the interest group system; especially tilted toward big business

48 Key terms: Iron Triangle: an enduring alliance of common interest among an interest group, common interest among an interest group, a congressional committee, and a a congressional committee, and a bureaucratic agency—the goal is to bureaucratic agency—the goal is to advance and protect government programs advance and protect government programs that work to the mutual benefit of its that work to the mutual benefit of its members members AUSA DOD/DOA HASC/SASC

49 Key terms: Issue networks are coalitions that form around different policy areas that include a range of public and private interest groups and policy experts as well as business representatives, bureaucrats and legislators. These are more fluid than iron triangles

50 Independent expenditures: money spent on behalf of candidates by interest groups & behalf of candidates by interest groups & individuals who are not connected with individuals who are not connected with the candidate’s campaign organization. the candidate’s campaign organization. Example: Gray Davis’s organization ran anti-Riordan ads in the 2002 Republican primary election The Swift Boat Veterans For Truth ran anti-Kerry ads in anti-Kerry ads in 2004.

51 Students, I am former Nevada Governor and senator, Paul Laxalt. I was part of the revolving door: a former government official who became a lobbyist. I became a lobbyist for the South African diamond industry in Washington. I had not dealt much with that industry while a senator (the true definition of a revolving door), but I still became a very well-paid lobbyist.

52 With regard to soft money, Senator Russ Feingold, a Wisconsin Democrat and I, an Arizona Republican, sponsored the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, which was aimed at banning soft money in federal elections.

53 That’s right, John. Our law enhanced the importance of 527 organizations: groups that can collect and spend money without legal limits to advocate for and against issues. Unfortunately, most have evolved as efforts to support or attack candidates or parties.

54 Our law placed no limits on how much money can be contributed to 527 organizations, but banned soft money contributions to national party committees. So, large amounts of unregulated money has flowed to 527s.

55 Here is an example of the worst of the Inside Game—a lobbyist gone bad. Inside Game—a lobbyist gone bad.lobbyist gone badlobbyist gone bad Jack Abramoff


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