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Access to Judicial Review. 2 Objectives Understand the difference between jurisdiction and standing Understand the theories of standing and how they are.

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Presentation on theme: "Access to Judicial Review. 2 Objectives Understand the difference between jurisdiction and standing Understand the theories of standing and how they are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Access to Judicial Review

2 2 Objectives Understand the difference between jurisdiction and standing Understand the theories of standing and how they are used in adlaw cases Understand ripeness in the agency context, including exhaustion of remedies and primary jurisdiction The details of access to the courts is for the federal courts course

3 3 Getting to Court is Not Winning! Remember from due process Getting a hearing is not the same as prevailing in the hearing Remember Marbury! If you cannot get to court, you cannot win Why is getting to court good even if you cannot win?

4 4 Jurisdiction and Standing Must be present or the claim is void Can be raised at any time, including by the court on its own ( sua sponte ) Why isn't a jurisdictional claim waived if counsel does not raise it?

5 5 28 USC § 1251. Original jurisdiction (a) The Supreme Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies between two or more States. (b) The Supreme Court shall have original but not exclusive jurisdiction of: (1) All actions or proceedings to which ambassadors, other public ministers, consuls, or vice consuls of foreign states are parties; (2) All controversies between the United States and a State; (3) All actions or proceedings by a State against the citizens of another State or against aliens.

6 6 The Role of Congress Except for the original jurisdiction of the United States Supreme Court that is in the constitution, and the constitutional requirement for a case and controversy, everything else is statutory Congress creates, and can limit, jurisdiction and standing, within the constitutional limits

7 7 28 § 1331. Federal question The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. Why will this always give you jurisdiction in a federal agency action? If the agency enabling act contains a provision controlling jurisdiction, it preempts § 1331. Can Congress remove jurisdiction?

8 8 Where do you file? 28 § 2342. Jurisdiction of court of appeals usc2342.htm usc2342.htm What sort of actions are usually reviewed by circuit courts? What is the rationale for having agency cases heard in the courts of appeals?

9 9 OSHA Example Enabling act says that actions may be brought under 29 U.S.C. § 655(f) in circuit courts The statute is silent as to whether this is the exclusive source of jurisdiction Could you use 1331 to get into district court about a suit over an OSHA action not covered by 655? What are the conflicting policies? specific statutes govern over general statutes, and to allow a plaintiff to choose a suit in district court over the specific statute's provision of review in a court of appeals would thwart the purpose of the specific statute

10 10 Standing Constitutionally Required Standing All cases must meet this standard While the United States Supreme Court can interpret what it means, the court cannot abolish it Prudential standing Additional statutory or judicial limits over the constitutional requirements

11 11 Constitutionally Required Standing Injury in fact Defenders.htm#18 Defenders.htm#18 Injury Causation Redressability

12 12 Broad Band Internet Access FCC makes a rule requiring cable companies to allow all ISPs access to its their pipes under the same terms Would a cable company have standing? Injury? Causation? Redressability?

13 13 Injunctions and Declaratory Relief If one plaintiff has standing, the action can go forward, even if others do not. Why is this different from a damage action with several plaintiffs?

14 14 Congressional Standing Congressman wants to challenge the constitutionality of a statute Is there a particularized (personal) injury? What are the separation of powers issues? What is the proper remedy for a congressman? Why would the court be unwilling to intervene? (Raines v. Byrd, 521 U.S. 811 (1997))

15 15 Recreational, Aesthetic, or Environmental Injury Sierra Club v. Morton, 405 U.S. 727 (1972) Just loving trees from far away is not enough If you use the area for recreation, this can be enough Why did the court find that just loving trees was not enough? When might this really affect whether a case can be brought?

16 16 Example: Damn that Mouse! Corps wants to build a dam that will destroy a scenic river and the habitat of an endangered mouse Sally has hiked there and will in the future John has spent his life defending endangered species, but has no future plans to visit this area. Who has standing and why?

17 17 Stopped here

18 18 Animal Standing Do animals have constitutional rights? Is there a constitutional right to bear dogs? Are dogs really just people in little fur coats? What is the test for standing to challenge agency actions that affect animals? What if you work with lab animals? Visit the zoo regularly? Why is animal standing very controversial?

19 19 Risk as Injury Historically, courts have accepted a theoretical risk of harm, such as increased risk of cancer from a landfill, as injury Louisiana Environmental Action Network v. U.S. E.P.A., 172 F.3d 65 (D.C. Cir. 1999) Risk posed by toxic wastes in landfill Is this a real risk? What are the policy implications? What could the effect be on the NO cleanup?

20 20 Rethinking Risk as Injury Must there be a substantial risk of injury, rather than just a theoretical risk of injury? Why is this easy to satisfy if the class is big enough? Natural Resources Defense Council v. Environmental Protection Agency, 464 F.3d 1 (D.C. Cir. 2006) 2 of 500,000 might get cancer

21 21 Fear as Injury Why is this key to many toxic tort cases? How can this be manipulated by attorneys? Why does this complicate allowing fear to trigger standing? Is there a real violation, such as violating a permit to dump toxic materials? This creates a plausible fear if you swim in the river. Friends of the Earth v. Laidlaw Environmental Services, 528 U.S. 167 (2000)

22 22 Public Citizen, Inc. v. National Highway Traffic Safety Admin., 489 F.3d 1279 (D.C. Cir. 2007) Plaintiff wants to challenge a regulation on tire pressure monitoring systems. Plaintiff said in its comments to the rule that it would accept a weaker version of the rule than the one pushed in this claim Court says it is impossible to quantify the risk differential of the two rules, thus no standing Not widely adopted, but may be a harbinger of things to come

23 23 ACLU v. NSA, 493 F.3d 644 (6th Cir. 2007) NSA surveillance of foreign telecommunications Challenged by attorneys and journalists because of the chilling effect How is their potential for injury different than the swimmers in Laidlaw? Is there any way they could know for sure if they were being intercepted? Does this allow NSA to control judicial review?

24 24 Procedural Injury What is a procedural injury? Is the procedural injury enough for standing? Why not? What else do you have to show?

25 25 Example - Requirement that the Corps Coordinate with other Agencies What was necessary for standing when the corps did not do the required statutory coordination with other agencies? How did the neighbor qualify but not the National Wildlife Federation? Was this based on the procedural error itself? What if it were a remote, unpopulated area? Might this leave no one with standing to object in court?

26 26 Example - FERC FERC allows previously banned ex parte communications by some parties A party wants to contest this procedural change The party has not yet been injured by a bad rule caused by the change What is your argument for standing? Why does this injury go to the heart of the process? Would this affect all parties before the agency?

27 27 Example - Denial of a Required Public Hearing The Corps skips a required public hearing when issuing a permit How would Justice Scalia read the standing requirement? How do some commentators argue that the Defenders of Wildlife have suffered a particularized injury, and thus have standing? Would this apply to anyone who said they wanted to participate in hearings? Would it matter if there were other opportunities to participate?

28 28 Informational Injury What is the injury if the agency fails to provide a document that is available under FOIA? What if the agency fails to collect required information that would be available to the public? What is the injury? Would a member of the public have standing to contest this, or is it too generalized an injury? How does FOIA change this analysis?

29 29 Example - FEC Classification Decision FEC does not classify an organization as one that must make public reports of its finances, which are then published by the FEC. Does a plaintiff who wants info on the group have standing to contest the classification? What is FEC's argument against standing? How did the Court use the purpose for collecting the information to support the plaintiff's standing claim? "Here, Congress, by passing the Act with the disclosure requirement, had deemed the information to be important to inform voters." What is your argument if the required information is not reported to the public, but is available under FOIA?

30 30 Mass v. EPA There are topic sections in the text that are new, and are based on Mass v. EPA. We will discuss that material in our discussion of the case.

31 31 Procedural Violations and Causation: Agency Fails to do an EIS for a Dam What is the causation problem? Do you have to show that that they done the EIS, that the dam would not have been built? What is the correct showing? What is the harmless error doctrine from civil procedure? What would the agency have to argue to rebut the standing claim? Why should this be a problem for the agency?

32 32 Can you get standing because of the effect of an action on a third party? Simon v. Eastern Ky. Welfare Rights Organization, 426 U.S. 26 (1976) Group challenged the tax exemption for a hospital, saying it did not deliver charity care Would denying the exemption increase charity care? What would they need to show? What if this was an order from HHS to comply with EMTALA, which requires emergency care be provided without regard to the patient's ability to pay?

33 33 Redressability You have to be able to show that the remedy you seek from the court would address your problem Like Simon If you have stated a concrete action for injury, you probably have also met this standard The problem is if the agency does not have the power to do what you want

34 34 Procedural Violations and Redressability Assume you have stated a real procedural injury Is there still a redressablity problem because the plaintiff cannot show that fixing the violation would result in a favorable result? In Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, the Court said, “[t]he person who has been accorded a procedural right to protect his concrete interests can assert that right without meeting all the normal standards for redressability and immediacy." Do you still have to show a theoretical chance of a change in agency action if the procedure is fixed? What if, as in global warming, the effect of the agency action is minor?

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