Presentation on theme: "F ICTIONAL E LEMENTS Characterization, plot, conflict & P.O.V."— Presentation transcript:
F ICTIONAL E LEMENTS Characterization, plot, conflict & P.O.V
8 D EVICES FOR C HARACTERIZATIONS 1. By action of the character EX: Pete slunk out of the battle. 2. By speech of the character: EX: "Howdy, pardner! Mighty fine day we are having" 3. By effect of the character upon other characters: EX: Her loveliness was breath-taking. 4. By the character’s own reactions to persons, things, and surrounding circumstances: EX: John adored her, especially in blue.
8 D EVICES FOR C HARACTERIZATIONS C ONT. 1. By reporting what other characters say about the character: EX: "Of course Sam is a thrill to be around!" Said Tom. 2. By explaining the traits and motives of the character: EX: When watching Top Chef, Jill dreams of cooking in a fine dining restaurant. 3. By describing the character (in terms of the five senses): EX: He had blue eyes, spoke with a Southern accent, smelled of the smokehouse, and his muscles were hard as nails. 4. By analyzing the psychological processes of the character: EX: He was unable to overcome his shyness, which was the result of him being the son of a famous and terribly egotistical father.
P LOT : H ISTORY AND S TRUCTURE The most basic and traditional form of plot is pyramid-shaped. Aristotle is credited for describing this Unified plot structure in 350 BC. He used the beginning, middle, and end structure to describe a story that moved along a linear path, following a chain of cause and effect as it works toward the solution of a conflict or crisis.
P LOT : H ISTORY AND S TRUCTURE C ONT. German novelist and playwright Gustav Freytag added to the unified plot structure by creating a raising action and a falling action. The plot went as follows: Exposition Rising action Climax Falling action Resolution/Dénouement
P LOT : H ISTORY AND S TRUCTURE C ONT. Freytag’s Pyramid is often modified so that it extends slightly before and after the primary rising and falling action. You might think of this part of the chart as similar to the warm-up and cool-down for the story and gives more room for descriptions.
P LOT : H OW TO A PPLY The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his or her basic idea. It is the sequence of events in a story The story needs more than just a listing of events or a writer’s deep insight into the human condition It must have content and meaning that is continuously reinforced Based on genre, this may alter from time to time. In Romance stories the plot shows many things to the reader to understand emotion where as a mystery may withhold information to build tension Ask yourself first, “How can I arrange the story elements to show the story in the best possible way?” Plot elements can shift around
P LOT : E LEMENTS Exposition/Introduction Initiating Incident Establishes setting and atmosphere Introduces important characters Rising Action After the initiating incident, a series of other events propels the story and build conflict Is marked by the series of events and conflicts Keeps the audience interested and moves the story towards the climax Climax This occurs when the action is at its highest point Most exciting part of the story
P LOT : E LEMENTS C ONT. Falling Action Immediately follows the climax and is a direct resolute of the decision made to battle the conflict Resolution/Dénouement It is the brief period during which outstanding conflicts are resolved and loose ends are tied It answers questions that may remain after the climax
C ONFLICT Conflict is essential to any plot It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move Not limited to open arguments, rather is any form of opposition that faces the main character Can be one central struggle or one central struggle with many minor ones
C ONFLICT C ONT. There are Internal and External conflicts which umbrella four other kinds Human vs. Human: Physical; external; leading character struggles with physical strength against other opponents. Human vs. Nature: Whole; external; leading character struggles against forces of nature Human vs. Society: Social; internal; struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people Human vs. Self: Psychological; internal; leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
P OINT OF V IEW : P.O.V The angle or perspective from which the story is told First Person: Told by the main character or another character that interacts closely with the main characters; uses pronouns ‘I’, ‘me’, or ‘we’; The reader only sees the story through this person’s eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels Second Person: Not used very often; uses pronoun ‘you’; most often used in training manuals, role- playing games and sometimes in meta-fiction
P OINT OF V IEW : P.O.V C ONT. Third Person: The story is told using a narrator who is located outside of the action of the story; pronouns in use are ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘his’, ‘her’, ‘they’, etc.; has three sub persons Omniscient: Means “knowing all”; using this P.O.V a narrator can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of any character and can introduce information where and when he or she chooses. Limited Omniscient: P.O.V where the narrator tells the story but from the view point of a character in the story; usually the main character; the reader has access to the thoughts and feelings of only one character. Objective: P.O.V where no comments on the characters or their thoughts are made; no interpretations are offered; the reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain; reader has to interpret events on his or her own