5 1. SettingSetting= the _________, _________ and general background information in a storyExample- a town, city, or countryExample- a historical time periodExample- a particular social status or lifestyle
7 A few examples of techniques to create an effective setting Film directors use many of the same techniques writers use to create an atmosphere.Visual Surroundings and Sounds…
8 CharacterizationCharacterization- the method an author uses to acquaint his or her readers with the characters in the storyExample: Pieces of information in the story that let the reader know about a character
9 Types of Characterization ____________________- the author gives clues about the character but places the burden for understanding the character upon the reader.Example: Clues given through a character’s actions, words, etc.
10 Types of Characterization _____________________- the author clearly states the entire description of a character.Example: “The man was tired; he had not slept in days.”
11 Methods of Characterization 1. The character’s ____________________ (what the character looks like)2. The character’s ___________________, what he or she _____________, and what he or she __________________ (as portrayed through events in the story)3. What the author directly tells the reader4. The character’s _______________
12 Tests to Determine the Main Character 1. He or she will be in ______________ scenes in the story.2. Something will happen to the character either _______________________.3. He or she will make a ____________ or important decision and cause the action in the story.
13 3. ThemeTheme- the central idea, universal truth, or “message” within the storyThe theme of the story may be ____________ or ______________.Implied themes are suggested indirectly through the experiences of the characters or through the events and setting of the work.
14 Application of ThemeA story’s theme is the idea you can take from the story and apply within some part of your life- or to humanity in general.Example: The “moral” of the story.Examples of general themes:FriendshipLoveRevengeGrowing up
15 4. Point of ViewPoint of view- the voice of the story; the author’s choice of narrator for the story
16 Types of Point of View________________- an actual character within the story (a limited point of view)Example: “Scout” in To Kill a Mockingbird- she tells the story from her point of view
17 Types of Point of View_________________- “all knowing,” the narrator stands out of the story and knows everything about all of the characters and actionThis point of view is also called _______________________________________________.Example: In “Star Wars,” words scroll across the screen at the beginning telling us the background story… “A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away…” (Lucas)
18 Types of Point of View_____________________- the narrator is outside of the story and only has a limited amount of information (ex. only about one character or event). This is also called ____________________________.Example: The short story, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”
19 Plot Structure through Short Stories (Source adapted from: Readwritethink.com, used with permission) Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. A plot diagram is an organizational tool, which is used to map the significant events in a story. By placing the most significant events from a story on the plot diagram, you can visualize the key features of the story.Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows the a causal arrangement of events and actions within a story.
20 Types of Linear Plots Plots can be told in Chronological order FlashbackIn addition, you can note that some stories follow a circular or episodic plot, and hypertextual stories can be different every time they’re read, as the reader chooses the direction that the story takes. If a story that students are working on does not fit into the triangle structure, think about why the author would choose a different story structure and how the structure has changed.In media res (in the middle of things) when the story starts in the middle of the action without exposition
21 Pyramid Plot Structure The most basic and traditional form of plot is pyramid-shaped.This structure has been described in more detail by Aristotle and by Gustav Freytag.
22 Aristotle’s Unified Plot The basic triangle-shaped plot structure was described by Aristotle in 350 BCE. Aristotle used the beginning, middle, and end structure to describe a story that moved along a linear path, following a chain of cause and effect as it works toward the solution of a conflict or crisis.Aristotle defined plot as comprised of three parts: beginning, middle, and end. When all the parts of a story follow naturally from one to the next in a connected way, Aristotle called the narrative structure a unified plot. The parts of a unified plot are linear, leading from one to the next in a cause and effect chain.
23 Freytag’s Plot Structure Freytag modified Aristotle’s system by adding a rising action (or complication) and a falling action to the structure. Freytag used the five-part design shown above to describe a story’s plot.Freytag modified Aristotle’s system by adding a rising action (or complication) and a falling action to the structure. Freytag’s structure begins with the introduction of a conflict or problem (exposition). At this point, background information is established. Next, the plot moves to rising action, as the conflict or problem is established fully. The mid-point of Freytag’s structure is the climax, the point in the story when there is a crisis or turning point. After the climax, the plot turns to falling action, when the events caused by the decision or crisis of the climax unfold. Finally, the story ends as the events are tied together (resolution). This final stage is also called the dénouement.
24 Modified Plot Structure Freytag’s Pyramid is often modified so that it extends slightly before and after the primary rising and falling action. You might think of this part of the chart as similar to the warm-up and cool-down for the story.Some readers find Freytag’s Pyramid is oversimplified. As a result, Freytag’s Pyramid is often modified so that it extends slightly before and after the primary rising and falling action. You might think of this part of the chart as similar to the warm-up and cool-down for the story.
25 Plot ComponentsClimax: the turning point, the most intense moment—either mentally or in actionRising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climaxFalling Action: all of the action which follows the climaxConflict / Inciting Incident: something that captures the reader’s attention and keeps the story movingExposition: The mood and conditions existing at the beginning of the story. The setting is identified. The main characters with their positions, circumstances and relationships to one another are established. The exciting force or initial conflict is introduced. Sometimes called the “Narrative HOOK” this begins the conflict that continues throughout the story.Rising Action: The series of events, conflicts, and crises in the story that lead up to the climax, providing the progressive intensity, and complicate the conflict.Climax: The turning point of the story. A crucial event takes place and from this point forward, the protagonist moves toward his inevitable end. The event may be either an action or a mental decision that the protagonist makes.Falling Action: The events occurring from the time of the climax to the end of the story. The main character may encounter more conflicts in this part of the story, but the end is inevitable.Resolution/Denouement: The tying up of loose ends and all of the threads in the story. The conclusion. The hero character either emerges triumphant or is defeated at this point.Exposition: the start of the story, the situation before the action startsResolution: the conclusion, the tying together of all of the threads (Dénouement)
26 ConflictConflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot.
27 Types of Conflict Interpersonal / External Conflict Human vs. Human Human vs. NatureHuman vs. SocietyHuman vs. SelfInternal Conflict