Presentation on theme: "2 Major Court Cases Page 290-91 and Page 708-709 1) Compare and contrast the court cases of Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 to Brown v. Board of Education, 1954."— Presentation transcript:
2 Major Court Cases Page and Page ) Compare and contrast the court cases of Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896 to Brown v. Board of Education, (What is each case about AND what is the ruling of each case?) 2) What was the response of the southern states to the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education? 3) What impact has the Brown decision had on the American way of life?
Bell Quiz: Use pages ) Define segregation. 2) According to the map on page 701 how many states required segregation of public schools? 3) What is a Jim Crow law? 4) How much more money did the U.S. spend educating white students compared to black students in 1938? 5) What was the 14 th amendment?
Bell Quiz Answers 1) Separation of races. 2) 17 states. 3) Laws in the south that separated races and facilities. 4) 10x as much money was spent educating white students as African-American students. 5) Guaranteed all Americans equal treatment under the law.
AMENDMENTS 1 ) 13 th : Abolished Slavery 2) 14 th : Civil Rights Amendment, grants citizenship, and provides equal protection under the law for all citizens (June 13, 1868). 3) 15 th Amendment: African-American men given the right to vote (February 26, 1869).
BLACK CODES * Originated in 1865 in Mississippi and South Carolina. * City ordinances prohibiting blacks from being equal. Not allowed to… * Carry weapons, testify against whites, marrying whites, serving on juries, starting own business, traveling w/out permits, renting or leasing farmland.
VOTING RESTRICTIONS 1) Literacy Test: Reading and writing test. 2) Poll Tax: Pay $ to vote. 3) Grandfather Clause: You could vote IF your Father or Grandfather had been eligible to vote before Jan.1, Problem?
Examples of Literacy Tests (Alabama) (Alabama) (Louisiana)
Who is Jim Crow? Jim Crow was NOT the name of an actual person. In 1832 Jim Crow became the stage name of a performance making fun of the stereotypical black person. Basically, the performance was the equivalent to “Saturday Night Live” or “The Dave Chappelle Show.”
Jim Crow Laws The southern states expanded the Black Codes by making laws separating races. These laws became known as Jim Crow laws or “Negro laws”. Jim Crow laws created separate facilities of various sorts throughout the south. Segregation=separation of races. Desegregation=No separation of races.
De facto vs. De jure Segregation De facto Segregation: Racial segregation, especially in public schools, that happens “by fact” or is customary rather than by legal requirement. For example, often the concentration of African-Americans in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly black. OR parents who teach their children not to intermarry. De jure Segregation: segregation that is imposed by law.
Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896 Homer Plessy, a Creole with just 1/8 African- American blood, was arrested for sitting in the “white only” section of a railroad car. The fine was just $25, but Plessy refused to pay and eventually decided to challenge the state law. The Supreme Court ruled 8-1 against Plessy, stating that the law did not violate the 14 th amendment guaranteeing all Americans equal treatment under the law. Therefore, “Separate, but equal” was legal!!!! Segregation will be legal for the next 58 years!
NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of colored People. Goal: full equality among all races. Fought for equality by using the court system.
Brown vs. Board of Education In 1954, the NAACP challenged the “Separate, but equal” ruling in the Supreme Court on behalf of 9 year old Linda Brown. The board of education in Kansas had denied Linda entrance into an all white elementary school just 4 blocks from her house. Instead, Linda had to walk 21 blocks to an all black school!
Brown vs. Board of Education Thurgood Marshall, an NAACP lawyer, was instrumental in winning the court case and getting the Supreme Court to rule that segregation was unconstitutional. “Separate, but equal” facilities are inherently unequal.
Reaction Southern states accused the Judicial Branch of abusing their power. They felt as if segregation was a state issue=Southern Manifesto. Southern Congressmen promised to use "all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution and to prevent the use of force in its implementation.” Also encouraged the citizens to disobey the Supreme Court decision. The governor of Georgia pledged to “map a program that will insure permanent segregation of the races…the people of Georgia will not comply with the decision of the court. We’re going to do whatever is necessary in Georgia to keep white children in white schools and colored children in colored schools.” In Short, the Southern states refused to abide by the Federal Government’s ruling. WHO HAS SUPREME POWER?
Brown II 500 school districts across the country had desegregated their classrooms by the start of the 1955 school year. However, still many school districts refused to desegregate their schools. In 1955 the supreme court issued a demand known as Brown II mandating that school desegregation be implemented “with all deliberate speed.” School districts across the south still refused to obey the supreme court (just 1% of schools were integrated by 1960).
Emmett Till Video Clip UtQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JU5kSap5 UtQ (First 26 minutes)
Bell Quiz: Pages What was the 3 word ruling of the Supreme Court in the 1896 case Plessy vs. Ferguson? 2. How did Governor Faubus originally keep Central High School from integrating? 3. What did President Eisenhower do to ensure Central High integrated? 4. What young Baptist preacher organized a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama which started his career as a civil rights leader? 5. How many days did the Montgomery Bus Boycott last?
Bell Quiz Answers 1. Separate, but equal. 2. Used the Arkansas National Guard to block the entrance to the school and not let the “Little Rock 9” into Central High. 3. President Eisenhower used the military to escort the students into school and to their classes for the entire school year. 4. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr Days
Little Rock, Arkansas In 1957, 9 African- American students volunteered to integrate Central High School. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus ordered the National Guard to not let the 9 students into the school.
Little Rock, Arkansas President Eisenhower was forced to show the southern states that the federal government has supreme power. Eisenhower sent 1000 paratroopers to Little Rock and escorted the 9 students past a white mob and into the school.
Ernest Green 2 years after being escorted into Central High School, Ernest Green became the 1 st African-American to graduate. 8 of the “Little Rock 9” eventually graduated from Central High.