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Presentation on theme: "- European CDM - Collaborative Optimisation of Arrivals To benefit from the animation settings contained within this presentation we suggest you view."— Presentation transcript:

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2 - European CDM - Collaborative Optimisation of Arrivals To benefit from the animation settings contained within this presentation we suggest you view using the slide show option. To start the show click ‘View - Slide Show’. next page

3 - European CDM - Collaborative Optimisation of Arrivals The following pages illustrate how introducing collaboration into Arrivals Management would benefit all participants …. Collaborative Decision Making Collaborative Decision Making Visit the European CDM website at for more information next page

4 Introduction Computer-assisted Arrivals Management is already operational at a few airports in Europe. Increasingly sophisticated processes and tools are being developed - for example by the EATCHIP ATM Added Functions sub-group. Arrivals Management Arrivals Management involves sequencing and metering the traffic approaching an airport. Within the next decade, we can expect Arrivals Management to be operational at most of the major airports in Europe. The aim is to optimise both runway capacity and approach capacity. next step next page

5 Introduction 3.In prioritising critical flights in the arrivals sequence. We have identified 3 areas where collaboration can improve the optimisation of arrivals: This presentation will look in turn at these 3 areas. Arrivals Managementcollaborative process Developing Arrivals Management as a collaborative process can enable it to serve better all involved – ATC, the Aircraft Operator and the Airport. 1.In better estimating ETAs. 2.In achieving Required Times of Arrival. next page next step

6 DLH AFR BAW KLM SWR      KEY A/C id FL Scale : 50 NM  ABC123 0 Airport It can be much more effective if good estimates of arrival times are available well in advance, for all flights. This allows the arrivals sequence to be planned early, giving time for the necessary adjustments to arrival time to be made in a fuel-efficient manner. In this example, arrivals sequence planning starts 30 min ahead, with the aircraft around 200NM from the airport. ETA But these estimates rely on information from the airlines and the aircraft - for example accurate estimates of their cruising speed. Some aircraft may still be on the ground at departure airport 30 mins prior to arrival... Collaboration to provide better estimates will make the Arrivals Management process more effective. In this case, collaboration between Airline (including Ground Staff) and ATC (including Departure Tower) will be particularly important to produce good estimates of arrival time. The planning is based on Estimated Times of Arrival (ETAs) provided by ATC Units “upstream” from the airport. Estimated Times of Arrival (ETAs) Achieving better estimates requires collaboration between ATC and Airlines... Arrivals Management depends on estimates of flight arrival times. ATC Departure ATC Departure ATC ETA Estimating ETAs requires information from both ATC and Airlines. flight info   flight info  next page next step

7 Airlines benefit from: increased capacity fuel-efficient arrivals avoiding costly airborne holding. ATC benefits from: increased capacity reduced traffic holding in the terminal area. There is a “win-win” – ATC and Airlines both win by providing reliable and timely information to enable effective Arrivals Management. Generating better ETAs is the first example of how collaboration can make Arrivals Management more effective. Estimated Times of Arrival (ETAs) To understand how, we first need to understand Arrivals Management in more detail... DLH AFR BAW KLM SWR      KEY A/C id FL Scale : 50 NM  ABC123 0 Airport ETA ATC Departure ATC ETA We can increase the benefit by taking further Collaborative Decision Making. the principles of Collaborative Decision Making. flight info next page next step

8 Arrivals Management The Arrivals Manager receives an ETA for each flight 30 minutes in advance, accurate to the nearest minute. This gives the anticipated schedule of arrivals :25 JK598 10:27M H10:31 CC789 CC333 10:23M CC222 10:22MCC111 10:22M AB304 10:19HAA001 10:18M M10:24 EE456 M10:21 EE123 L10:20 BB125 H10:20 CD119 M10:17 CC001 Arrivals Sequence (by ETA) AB304 10:19 H Arrivals via Fix AArrivals via Fix B Flight ID Estimated time at metering fix. Wake vortex category The Arrivals Management function will modify this “natural” sequence to: take account of radar and wake vortex separation criteria, optimise the arrivals runway throughput and/or approach capacity, arrange the arrivals traffic to improve safety and reduce tactical controller workload where possible. This produces Required Times of Arrival at the threshold (RTA) and at the metering fix (RTA MF ). H (0) 10:31 CC789 JK598 10:30 (+3) M CC333 10:28 (+5) M L (+4) 10:24 BB125 CC222 10:25 (+3) M M (+3) 10:27 EE456 M (+1) 10:22 EE123 CC111 10:23 (+1) M H (0) 10:20 CD119 AB304 10:20 (+1) H M (-1) 10:16 CC001 AA001 10:17 (-1) M A.M. delay Key Arrivals Sequence (by RTA) Note that arrivals sequencing is not an exact science – and the whole process is subject to revision as updates to arrival times are received. Required time (+3) next page next step

9 DLH AFR BAW KLM SWR      KEY A/C id FL Scale : 50 NM  ABC123 0 Airport ETA ATC Departure ATC ETA This change of responsibility for meeting RTA is the second example of how collaboration can make Arrivals Management more effective. Required Times of Arrival (RTAs) Under CDM, Required Time at the metering fix (RTA MF ) is sent to the pilot, who is responsible for meeting that time. In current implementations of Arrivals Management, ATC is responsible for ensuring aircraft meet their RTAs (by issuing instructions to change speed or vectoring them along path stretches).  Airlines benefit from the freedom to fly in their preferred way to meet the required arrival time. Larger variations in Arrival Time could be achieved by varying the route flown. This implies a flight-plan change, and therefore requires collaboration with en-route ATC. RTA (Rules of thumb would ensure that ATC does not generally request delays or advances that are too great for the aircraft to achieve by speed control. If the aircraft cannot achieve the required time, the pilot would be responsible for declaring this to ATC.)  ATC benefits from reduced workload and better compliance with Required Times of Arrival. (This leads on to the In-Flight Traffic Management application of CDM, described in another scenario.) next page next step

10 Notes: Collaboration in Arrivals Sequencing The benefit to Airlines, and hence their interest in the process already described, CDM can be increased by introducing a third element of CDM into Arrivals Management: allowing AOCs to influence the planned arrivals sequence according to their own priorities. Capacity will continue to be the main driver for Arrivals Management. However, once the infrastructure for Arrivals Management is in place, it is a relatively small step to extend the concept to allow Airlines to gain additional operational benefit from it, over and above the benefit they gain from the increased landing capacity. ATC is best-placed to decide the arrivals sequence needed to optimise capacity. Airlines are best-placed to decide which flights are critical, and therefore have responsibility for requesting swaps in the planned arrivals sequence. Within that sequence there may be some cases where two flights could be swapped without significantly degrading capacity or the orderliness of the arrivals sequence. next page next step

11 Where an Airline has two or more flights arriving within a short time of one another, its AOC can request to swap the order of those flights in the arrivals sequence. Collaboration in Arrivals Sequencing The process would work as follows: The AOCs are informed of the planned arrivals sequence. For example, assume CC333 is already delayed and trying to make up time to reduce impact on the schedule. Its assigned arrivals delay is 5 min, but the AOC would like it to arrive as soon as possible - at its ETA of 10:32. Airline CC has another flight in the Arrivals sequence at that time - CC111. That flight is not time critical; the schedule will not be affected if it is delayed by an additional 5 minutes. The AOC sends a request to the Arrivals Manager to swap flights CC111 and CC333 in the arrivals sequence. The Arrivals Manager would evaluate the request in the light of other constraints (departure traffic, approach constraints, wake vortex category,...). If the requested swap is feasible, the Arrivals Manager will implement it, sending new RTA MF s to the affected flights :25 H (0) 10:31 CC789 JK598 10:30 (+3) M CC333 10:28 (+5) M CC222 10:25 (+3) M CC111 10:23 (+1) M AB304 10:20 (+1) H AA001 10:17 (-1) M M (+3) 10:27 EE456 M (+1) 10:22 EE123 L (+4) 10:24 BB125 H (0) 10:20 CD119 M (-1) 10:16 CC001 Arrivals Sequence (by RTA) ? CC333 10:28 (0) M CC111 10:23 (+6) M next page next step

12 The amount of variation possible between ETA and RTA, both for basic Arrivals Management and for the AOC to adjust the planned sequence according to its own priorities, depends on: How much variation in Arrival Time will be possible? the manoeuvres that are allowed en-route to adjust a flight’s arrival time at the metering fix (is speed control the only possibility, or are changes of route / path stretching also possible?); how far in advance the initial arrivals planning is done (earlier planning means that speed changes can be applied over a longer distance/time, and gives more opportunity for path changes, enabling larger differences between ETA and RTA); whether the flight is time-critical (a time-critical flight will probably be flight-planned to fly at its maximum acceptable operating speed, over the shortest route available, and therefore its ETA will represent the earliest time of arrival it can achieve – an earlier RTA will not be possible). (Route changes provide the opportunity for larger variations in arrival time than can be achieved by speed control alone, but would need to be negotiated with any affected en-route ATC units. This leads on to the In-Flight Traffic Management application of CDM, described in another scenario.) next page next step

13 Note: An alternative mechanism to achieve flight prioritisation in arrivals sequencing would be for the AOC to send Approach ATC a “prioritise” message for its critical flight. ATC would then give preference to this flight over others from the same airline in planning the arrivals sequence. However, this does not allow for negotiation between airlines, and thus is a weaker implementation of the CDM philosophy. Collaboration in Arrivals Sequencing  Rules and procedures governing Airlines’ participation in Arrivals Sequencing will need to be agreed between all users to ensure equal access and benefits. In principle, the swapped flights need not belong to the same airline. Airlines serving the same airport may come to an agreement whereby each will reciprocally help the other to expedite a particularly critical flight. The arrivals sequence could also be modified to make more efficient use of ground resources (for example to prioritise a flight whose allocated stand is already free, at the expense of one that will have to wait on the apron for its stand to be vacated).  Introducing this collaborative element to Arrivals Sequencing increases the Airlines’ benefit from Arrivals Management by enabling the prioritisation of time-critical flights.  In this case, the Airport organisation will also benefit. In addition, Approach ATC will need to provide guidance as to which swaps are likely to be acceptable from the point of view of not degrading capacity. For example, must the swapping flights : - have the same wake vortex category? - be arriving via the same metering fix? next page next step

14 Collaboration can improve the optimisation of arrivals within Arrivals Management in three areas: Collaborative Optimisation of Arrivals SUMMARY - Estimating ETAs better The arrivals sequence can be planned early, giving time for the necessary adjustments to arrival time to be made in a fuel-efficient manner. Accurate ETAs are also required to enable the following stages. - Achieving Required Times of Arrival (RTAs) Airlines are able to plan more efficient approach paths, for example by flying slower to delay their arrival in order to avoid costly airborne holding. - Sequencing Airlines (and the Airport organisation) are able to prioritise critical flights in the arrivals sequence. The overall process is animated on the next slide... next page next step

15 APP Arrivals Manager flight info plan arrivals sequence co-ordination planning info and runway config Arrivals Management - Information Flow ACC ETA :25 H (0) 10:31 CC789 JK598 10:30 (+3) M CC333 10:28 (+5) M CC222 10:25 (+3) M CC111 10:23 (+1) M AB304 10:20 (+1) H AA001 10:17 (-1) M M (+3) 10:27 EE456 M (+1) 10:22 EE123 L (+4) 10:24 BB125 H (0) 10:20 CD119 M (-1) 10:16 CC001 Arrivals Sequence (by RTA) RTA confirmation AOC sequence requests & proposals co-ordination update arrivals sequence co-ordination RTA - End of Presentation -


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