Presentation on theme: "Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed) Hesham S. Abdul MaguidFaculty of Social WorkHelwan University4 April 2015
2 First sessionIntroduction: Title- Author(s) name(s) and Affiliation(s)Abstract and KeywordsReferences formatTypes of articlesArticles sequences (Steps)Introduction (theoretical framework).
3 Introduction Title of the Article Title should:summarize the main idea of the manuscript simplyIt should be a concise statement of the main topic and should identify the variables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them.Avoid words that serve no useful purposeExample: the words method and results do not normally appear in a title- A Study of or An Experimental Investigation of
4 Author's Name and Institutional Affiliation First name- sec.-Family name- institutional affiliationHesham S. Abdul MaguidFaculty SW- Helwan UniversityOne authorHesham S. Abdul Maguid and Gamal S. Mohamed.Two authors- one affiliation. (also moreHendawy M. Abdul LahyHigher Institution of Social work- CairoTwo authors- two affiliation. (also three or more)Two authors- two affiliation.
5 An AbstractAn abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quicklyAn abstract of an empirical study should describethe problem under investigation, in one sentence if possible;the participants, specifying pertinent characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnicthe essential features of study method-you have a limited number of words so restrict your description to essential and interesting features of the study methodology particularly those likely to be used in electronic searchesthe basic findings, including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels; andthe conclusions and the implications or applications.
6 References formatAccording to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition, we have two styles of citation:1- Citations within Quotations2- References List
7 Citations within Quotations APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words: incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in mid-sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks and continue the sentence. Use no other punctuation unless the meaning of the sentence require such punctuation.Example: Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns (p. 541), contributing to an overall Climate of negativity.
8 Citations within Quotations If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence: close the quoted passage with the quotation mark, Cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation mark and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis.Example: Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care whereby medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; non-medical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).
9 Citations within Quotations If the quotation comprises 40 or more words: display it in a freestanding block of text and do not use quotation marks. Start such a block quotation in a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph.Example:Co-presence does not ensure .intimate interaction among all group members, Consider large-scale .social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.In these Instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp )
10 Citations within Quotations One work by one author:In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned… (P.19) ORIn the study by Smith (1990), primary school children… (P.19) ORIn 1990, Smith’s study of primary school children… (P.19)Children learned from your parents how to deal with social problems…..(Smith R,1990, P.19),
11 Citations within Quotations Works by multiple authors:When a work has, two authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al. For example:First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and Slowinski (1989) state that…Subsequent citations: Masserton et al. (1989) state that…For six or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.
12 Citations within Quotations Works by no identified author:When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example:The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009). The brochure argues for homeschooling (Education Reform, 2007).Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
13 Citation IN A References List (Books) One author: Maguire, L (2008). Clinical Social Work, (2nd Ed) Canada: Brooks/ Cole.Mattaini, M (1997). Clinical Practice with Individual, Washington, DC, NASW Press.Two authors: Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to everything and then some more stuff. New York, NY: Macmillan.Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain-compatible learning (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
14 Citation IN A References List (Books) Three Authors:Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, G., Osborn, R (2010). Basic Organizational Behavior, (2nd Ed) New York, John Wiley & Sons. INCMore than three authors:Schermerhorn, J., et al (2010). Basic Organizational Behavior, (2ndEd) New York, John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Chapter of a Book (Eds.):Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J. D. Buenker & L. A. Ratner (Eds.), Multiculturalism in the United States: A comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity (pp ). New York, NY: Greenwood.
15 Citation IN A References List (Journal Article) Journal Article (printed)Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energycrisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 1-7.Journal Article (internet)Journal Article with DOI: Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, doi: /Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available): Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The funny nature of dogs. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), Retrieved from
16 Citation IN A References List (Others) Online Newspaper Articles:Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers reap conservation’s rewards. The New York Times. Retrieved fromEncyclopedia Articles:Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp ). New York: Wiley.Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge encyclopedia of child development. Retrieved from Technical and Research Reports (often with corporate authors)Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15) Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www.hersheysannualreport.com/2000/index.htm
17 Types of ArticlesAs the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (P.P ), The Type of article that you can publish in Egyptian Journal of Social Work are:1- Empirical Studies2-Literature Reviews3- Theoretical Articles4-Methodological Articles
18 Types of ArticlesEmpirical Studies: Are reports of original research include secondary analyses that test hypotheses by presenting novel analyses of data not considered or addressed in previous reports. They typically consist of distinct sections that reflect the stages in the research process.Theoretical Articles: Authors draw on existing research literature to advance theory. Literature reviews and theoretical articles are often similar in structure, but theoretical articles present empirical information only when it advances a theoretical issue. Authors of theoretical articles trace the development of theory to expand and refine theoretical constructs or present a new theory or analyze existing theory, pointing out flaws or demonstrating the advantage of one theory over another. In this type of article, authors customarily examine a theory's internal consistency and external validity.
19 Types of ArticlesMethodological Articles: Present new methodological approaches, modifications of existing methods, or discussions of quantitative and data analytic approaches to the community of researchers. These articles focus on methodological or data analytic approaches and introduce empirical data only as illustrations of the approach. Methodological articles are presented at a level that makes them accessible to the well-read researcher and provide sufficient detail for researchers to assess the applicability of the methodology to their research problem.Literature Reviews: Including research syntheses and meta-analyses, are critical evaluations of material that has already been published. In meta-analyses, authors use quantitative procedures to statistically combine the results of studies. By organizing, integrating, and evaluating previously published material, authors of literature reviews consider the progress of research toward clarifying a problem. In a sense, literature reviews are tutorials, in those authorsdefine and clarify the problem;summarize previous investigations to inform the reader of the state of research;identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature; andsuggest the next step or steps in solving the problem
20 Articles sequences (Steps) Introduction The importance of the problem:Theoretical or practical implicationsReview of relevant scholarship:Relation to previous workIf other aspects of this study have been reported on previously, how the current report differs from these earlier reportsSpecific hypotheses and objectives:Theories or other means used to derive hypothesesPrimary and secondary hypotheses, other planned analysesHow hypotheses and research design relate to one another
22 Method (Sample) Participant characteristics: Eligibility and exclusion criteria, including any restrictions based on demographic characteristicsMajor demographic characteristics as well as important topic-specific characteristics (e.g., achievement level in studies of educational interventions)Sampling procedures:Procedures for selecting participants, including:The sampling method if a systematic sampling plan was implementedPercentage of sample approached that participatedSelf-selection (either by individuals or units, such as schools or clinics)Settings and locations where data were collectedAgreements and payments made to participantsInstitutional review board agreements, ethical standards met, safety monitoring
23 Method (Measures and tools) Definitions of all primary and secondary measures and tools:Include measures collected but not included in this reportMethods used to collect dataMethods used to enhance the quality of measurements or other tools:Training and reliability of data collectorsUse of multiple observations. .. .Information on validated or ad hoc instruments created for individual studies, for example,Psychometric and biometric properties.
24 Method (Research design) Whether conditions were manipulated or naturally observedType of research design; Randomized experimentsQuasi-experiments.Other designs would have different reporting needs associated with them
25 Results Participant flow: Recruitment Statistics and data analysis: Total number of participantsFlow of participants through each stage of the study (Exp. & Quasi Exp.)Recruitment Statistics and data analysis:Dates defining the periods of recruitment and repeated measurements or follow up.Information concerning problems with statistical assumptions and/or data distributions that could affect the validity of findingsMissing data:Frequency or percentages of missing data. .Empirical evidence and/or theoretical arguments for the causes of data that are missing for example, missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), or missing not at random (MNARJMethods for addressing missing data, if used
26 discussion (conclusion) Statement of support or nonsupport for all original hypotheses:Distinguished by primary and secondary hypothesesPost hoc explanations:Similarities and differences between results and work of othersInterpretation of the results, taking into account:Sources of potential bios and other threats to Internal validityImprecision of measuresThe overall number of tests or overlap among tests, andOther limitations or weaknesses of the studyGeneralizability (external validity) of the findings, taking into account:The target populationOther contextual issuesDiscussion of implications for future research, program, or policy
27 Goodbye and good luckHesham S. Abdul MaguidEditor in chief