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Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Workshop Articles Writing Skills in Social Work (APA, 6th Ed)
Hesham S. Abdul Maguid Faculty of Social Work Helwan University 4 April 2015

2 First session Introduction: Title- Author(s) name(s) and Affiliation(s) Abstract and Keywords References format Types of articles Articles sequences (Steps) Introduction (theoretical framework).

3 Introduction Title of the Article
Title should: summarize the main idea of the manuscript simply It should be a concise statement of the main topic and should identify the variables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them. Avoid words that serve no useful purpose Example: the words method and results do not normally appear in a title- A Study of or An Experimental Investigation of

4 Author's Name and Institutional Affiliation
First name- sec.-Family name- institutional affiliation Hesham S. Abdul Maguid Faculty SW- Helwan University One author Hesham S. Abdul Maguid and Gamal S. Mohamed. Two authors- one affiliation. (also more Hendawy M. Abdul Lahy Higher Institution of Social work- Cairo Two authors- two affiliation. (also three or more) Two authors- two affiliation.

5 An Abstract An abstract is a brief, comprehensive summary of the contents of the article; it allows readers to survey the contents of an article quickly An abstract of an empirical study should describe the problem under investigation, in one sentence if possible; the participants, specifying pertinent characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnic the essential features of study method-you have a limited number of words so restrict your description to essential and interesting features of the study methodology particularly those likely to be used in electronic searches the basic findings, including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels; and the conclusions and the implications or applications.

6 References format According to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) 6th Edition, we have two styles of citation: 1- Citations within Quotations 2- References List

7 Citations within Quotations
APA uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place. If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words: incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks. If the quotation appears in mid-sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks and continue the sentence. Use no other punctuation unless the meaning of the sentence require such punctuation. Example: Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent  without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns (p. 541), contributing to an overall Climate of negativity.

8 Citations within Quotations
If the quotation appears at the end of a sentence: close the quoted passage with the quotation mark, Cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation mark and end with a period or other punctuation outside the final parenthesis. Example: Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care whereby medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; non-medical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).

9 Citations within Quotations
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words: display it in a freestanding block of text and do not use quotation marks. Start such a block quotation in a new line and indent the block about a half inch from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph. Example: Co-presence does not ensure .intimate interaction among all group members, Consider large-scale .social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. In these Instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp )

10 Citations within Quotations
One work by one author: In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned… (P.19) OR In the study by Smith (1990), primary school children… (P.19) OR In 1990, Smith’s study of primary school children… (P.19) Children learned from your parents how to deal with social problems…..(Smith R,1990, P.19),

11 Citations within Quotations
Works by multiple authors: When a work has, two authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al. For example: First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and Slowinski (1989) state that… Subsequent citations: Masserton et al. (1989) state that… For six or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.

12 Citations within Quotations
Works by no identified author: When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example: The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009). The brochure argues for homeschooling (Education Reform, 2007). Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.

13 Citation IN A References List (Books)
One author:  Maguire, L (2008). Clinical Social Work, (2nd Ed) Canada: Brooks/ Cole. Mattaini, M (1997). Clinical Practice with Individual, Washington, DC, NASW Press. Two authors:  Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to everything and then some more stuff. New York, NY: Macmillan. Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain-compatible learning (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

14 Citation IN A References List (Books)
Three Authors: Schermerhorn, J., Hunt, G., Osborn, R (2010). Basic Organizational Behavior, (2nd Ed) New York, John Wiley & Sons. INC More than three authors: Schermerhorn, J., et al (2010). Basic Organizational Behavior, (2ndEd) New York, John Wiley & Sons. Inc.  Chapter of a Book (Eds.): Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J. D. Buenker & L. A. Ratner (Eds.), Multiculturalism in the United States: A comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity (pp ). New York, NY: Greenwood.

15 Citation IN A References List (Journal Article)
Journal Article (printed) Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energycrisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 1-7. Journal Article (internet) Journal Article with DOI:  Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, doi: / Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available):  Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The funny nature of dogs. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), Retrieved from

16 Citation IN A References List (Others)
Online Newspaper Articles: Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers reap conservation’s rewards. The New York Times. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Articles: Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp ). New York: Wiley. Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge encyclopedia of child development. Retrieved from  Technical and Research Reports (often with corporate authors) Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15) Annual Report. Retrieved from

17 Types of Articles As the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (P.P ), The Type of article that you can publish in Egyptian Journal of Social Work are: 1- Empirical Studies 2-Literature Reviews 3- Theoretical Articles 4-Methodological Articles

18 Types of Articles Empirical Studies: Are reports of original research include secondary analyses that test hypotheses by presenting novel analyses of data not considered or addressed in previous reports. They typically consist of distinct sections that reflect the stages in the research process. Theoretical Articles: Authors draw on existing research literature to advance theory. Literature reviews and theoretical articles are often similar in structure, but theoretical articles present empirical information only when it advances a theoretical issue. Authors of theoretical articles trace the development of theory to expand and refine theoretical constructs or present a new theory or analyze existing theory, pointing out flaws or demonstrating the advantage of one theory over another. In this type of article, authors customarily examine a theory's internal consistency and external validity.

19 Types of Articles Methodological Articles: Present new methodological approaches, modifications of existing methods, or discussions of quantitative and data analytic approaches to the community of researchers. These articles focus on methodological or data analytic approaches and introduce empirical data only as illustrations of the approach. Methodological articles are presented at a level that makes them accessible to the well-read researcher and provide sufficient detail for researchers to assess the applicability of the methodology to their research problem. Literature Reviews: Including research syntheses and meta-analyses, are critical evaluations of material that has already been published. In meta-analyses, authors use quantitative procedures to statistically combine the results of studies. By organizing, integrating, and evaluating previously published material, authors of literature reviews consider the progress of research toward clarifying a problem. In a sense, literature reviews are tutorials, in those authors define and clarify the problem; summarize previous investigations to inform the reader of the state of research; identify relations, contradictions, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature; and suggest the next step or steps in solving the problem

20 Articles sequences (Steps) Introduction
The importance of the problem: Theoretical or practical implications Review of relevant scholarship: Relation to previous work If other aspects of this study have been reported on previously, how the current report differs from these earlier reports Specific hypotheses and objectives: Theories or other means used to derive hypotheses Primary and secondary hypotheses, other planned analyses How hypotheses and research design relate to one another

21 Second session Method Methods subsection Sample characteristic
Sample procedures Result Discussion (Conclusion)

22 Method (Sample) Participant characteristics:
Eligibility and exclusion criteria, including any restrictions based on demographic characteristics Major demographic characteristics as well as important topic-specific characteristics (e.g., achievement level in studies of educational interventions) Sampling procedures: Procedures for selecting participants, including: The sampling method if a systematic sampling plan was implemented Percentage of sample approached that participated Self-selection (either by individuals or units, such as schools or clinics) Settings and locations where data were collected Agreements and payments made to participants Institutional review board agreements, ethical standards met, safety monitoring

23 Method (Measures and tools)
Definitions of all primary and secondary measures and tools: Include measures collected but not included in this report Methods used to collect data Methods used to enhance the quality of measurements or other tools: Training and reliability of data collectors Use of multiple observations. .. . Information on validated or ad hoc instruments created for individual studies, for example, Psychometric and biometric properties.

24 Method (Research design)
Whether conditions were manipulated or naturally observed Type of research design; Randomized experiments Quasi-experiments. Other designs would have different reporting needs associated with them 

25 Results Participant flow: Recruitment Statistics and data analysis:
Total number of participants Flow of participants through each stage of the study (Exp. & Quasi Exp.) Recruitment Statistics and data analysis: Dates defining the periods of recruitment and repeated measurements or follow up. Information concerning problems with statistical assumptions and/or data distributions that could affect the validity of findings Missing data: Frequency or percentages of missing data. . Empirical evidence and/or theoretical arguments for the causes of data that are missing for example, missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), or missing not at random (MNARJ Methods for addressing missing data, if used

26 discussion (conclusion)
Statement of support or nonsupport for all original hypotheses: Distinguished by primary and secondary hypotheses Post hoc explanations: Similarities and differences between results and work of others Interpretation of the results, taking into account: Sources of potential bios and other threats to Internal validity Imprecision of measures The overall number of tests or overlap among tests, and Other limitations or weaknesses of the study Generalizability (external validity) of the findings, taking into account: The target population Other contextual issues Discussion of implications for future research, program, or policy

27 Goodbye and good luck Hesham S. Abdul Maguid Editor in chief

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