Presentation on theme: "Dissecting A Journal Article AP Psychology By: Jessica Mulder Adapted from Megan E. Bradley ey/dissecting.html#b."— Presentation transcript:
Dissecting A Journal Article AP Psychology By: Jessica Mulder Adapted from Megan E. Bradley ey/dissecting.html#b
Sections of a Research Article Title and Author Information Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion References
Title and Author Information The title of the article, the authors' names, and the authors' addresses are usually the first prominent parts of the article. The title will provide information about what the article is about. Looking at the author’s research / institution affiliation can help to show the prestige of the article.
Abstract The Abstract is a brief summary of the entire article, in approximately 120 words. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a quick review of the article's content: (a) the article's problem under investigation or the hypothesis, (b) pertinent information on the participants, (c) brief review of methodology, (d) statistical analyses, (e) results of the study, and (f) implications of the study.
Introduction The Introduction begins with a broad statement of the problem under investigation and then proceeds to narrow the focus to the specific hypothesis or hypotheses of the study. The purpose of this section is to introduce the reader to the overall issue/problem that is being tested and to provide justification for the hypothesis or hypotheses. In order to accomplish these tasks, the author needs to review past research on the same topic, discussing their findings.
Methods The purpose of the Method section is to provide a detailed description of how the study was conducted. An overarching goal of science is the replication of research. It is in the Method section that authors need to specify their participants and procedures to allow others to duplicate the study. Think of this section as being a recipe with an exact description for others to follow.
Methods Participants/Subjects –Number of participants –Major demographic characteristics –Ethical principles used Materials/Measures –“ingredients” Procedure –Subsection provides a detailed account of what happened in the study.
Results The Results section is the statistical reporting of the data. Its purpose is to describe what was found after statistically analyzing the data. Tables and figures are often used to convey important information in an organized manner.
Discussion The Discussion section reviews, interprets, and evaluates the results of the study using no statistics. Discussion sections typically begin by listing the hypotheses and then stating if the results supported or contradicted the hypotheses. Next, writers usually discuss similarities and differences between the current findings and findings of previous research. Any weaknesses of the current study are also reviewed and suggestions are made on improving the research design. Finally, a discussion section usually ends with the writer providing directions for future research.
Reference Section The last important section of an article is the list of references. In alphabetical order.
Dissecting a Research Article I.Research Questions/ Purpose of the Article II.Hypothesis III.Variables A.Independent Variable B.Dependent Variable IV.Methodology A.Who Participated? B.What did they do? V.Major Findings VI.Weaknesses of the Reserach
I. Research Question(s)/ Purpose of Article Every article has a purpose or a main research question to guide it. Sometimes this is formally stated while other times the reader must glean this information. You can find this information in the article's Introduction and, sometimes, the abstract.
II. Hypothesis You can usually find the hypothesis (or hypotheses) in the introduction and, sometimes, the abstract. Sometimes the hypothesis is formally stated; other times it is phrased as "We believe such and such will happen" or "We think this will happen".
III. Variables The answers to finding both the independent and dependent variables is usually found in the introduction and method sections (and sometimes the abstract). You can also figure out these variables from the hypothesis. It is usually best to first figure out the main variables or constructs of the study, and then choose which one is the IV and which one is the DV.
IV. Method For this part of the outline, you want to read through the Method section to see who participated in the study and what did they have to do. Under part (A) who participated section, you'll want to briefly state who did the study. Children? Ages? Gender? Parents? etc. Under part (B) you want to describe what the participants were instructed to do.
V. Major Findings Did the results of the experiment support their hypothesis? What were the major findings of the article? What happened?
Weaknesses of the Article This will usually be found in the discussion section. Also, as a keen observer you should be able to come up with some on your own.