Presentation on theme: "What groups fought for Civil Rights during the mid-20 th century? What were their goals, tactics, strategy and levels of success? How/Why do they become."— Presentation transcript:
What groups fought for Civil Rights during the mid-20 th century? What were their goals, tactics, strategy and levels of success? How/Why do they become the template for citizen activism?
1940 NAACP Legal Defense Fund founded by Thurgood Marshall focused on attacking racism in the courts 1942 Founding of CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) 1947 Integration of Major League Baseball by Jackie Robinson (right) 1948 Desegregation of armed forces Early victories
I. NAACP --- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded by W.E.B. DuBois from the Niagara Movement (during the Progressive Era) founded by W.E.B. DuBois from the Niagara Movement (during the Progressive Era) focused on legal action ----tried to provoke Judicial Activism---- challenging laws that violated the Constitution (14th amend) focused on legal action ----tried to provoke Judicial Activism---- challenging laws that violated the Constitution (14th amend) helped train lawyers like Thurgood Marshall helped train lawyers like Thurgood Marshall Brown v B.O.E. Topeka, KS 1954 Brown v B.O.E. Topeka, KS 1954 Overturned “separate but equal” Overturned “separate but equal” Very resisted by southern states Very resisted by southern states Little Rock, Arkansas Little Rock, Arkansas
School Segregation in 1952
Brown vs. Board of Education Linda Brown, an African American third-grader in Topeka, Kansas, lived just blocks away from the nearest elementary school. However, that was a whites-only school, so she had to walk five blocks and then take a bus for two miles to reach the elementary school for blacks. The NAACP recruited Brown’s parents and other Topeka residents to challenge segregation in the public schools. The Supreme Court recognized the harm segregation did to African American students. Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) reversed Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently [by their nature] unequal … Such segregation is a denial of the equal protection of the law.” – Earl Warren
Make a prediction! What might happen now that Brown vs. Board has declared segregated schools unconstitutional?
Little Rock Crisis and Integration At the time of the Brown decision, 21 states had schools that were segregated by law. The Supreme Court’s ruling declared segregation unconstitutional, but it offered no firm guidance about how or when desegregation should occur. WHY WOULD THIS CREATE PROBLEMS?
Montgomery Bus Boycott In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks (NAACP) refused to give up her seat to make room for white passengers African Americans begin to boycott the bus system Martin Luther King Jr. becomes leader of the boycott What hardships did the boycott have on African Americans as well as the bus system?
II. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) grew out of bus boycott grew out of bus boycott churches were a locus of community activity churches were a locus of community activity MLK its leader --- Baptist minister MLK its leader --- Baptist minister Studied Gandhi, Thoreau, Jesus Studied Gandhi, Thoreau, Jesus Viewed as accommodating to whites (non- threatening) Viewed as accommodating to whites (non- threatening) “non-violent, passive resistance” and “civil disobedience” “non-violent, passive resistance” and “civil disobedience”
“Never, never be afraid to do what's right, especially if the well- being of a person or animal is at stake. Society's punishments are small compared to the wounds we inflict on our soul when we look the other way.” ― Martin Luther King Jr. Civil Disobedience
III. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
SNCC On February 1, 1960, a group of black college students from North Carolina A&T University refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina where they had been denied service. This sparked a wave of other sit-ins in college towns across the South. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC (pronounced "snick"), was created on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh two months later to coordinate these sit- ins, support their leaders, and publicize their activities. On February 1, 1960, a group of black college students from North Carolina A&T University refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina where they had been denied service. This sparked a wave of other sit-ins in college towns across the South. The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC (pronounced "snick"), was created on the campus of Shaw University in Raleigh two months later to coordinate these sit- ins, support their leaders, and publicize their activities.
A. SNCC organized for sit-ins all across the South
Woolworth Sit-in Jackson MS, 1963
B. SNCC Worked w/ SCLC in many activities throughout the South many White northern college students joined African- Americans students in local protests many White northern college students joined African- Americans students in local protests Freedom Summer, 1964 organized voter registration drives
Freedom Rides 1961 “We felt we could count on the racists of the South to create a crisis so that the federal government would be compelled to enforce the law.” Fearing death, several of them made out wills or wrote letters of farewell to loved ones before leaving for Birmingham.
Medgar Evars Assassination
C. SCLC combined w/ many groups for the March on Washington, Aug To show support for the proposed Civil Rights Bill To show support for the proposed Civil Rights Bill JFK killed before passed, but Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in his memory JFK killed before passed, but Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in his memory
D. Selma, AL SCLC & SNCC
Selma was similar to Gandhi’s salt march 50 mi walk to Statehouse to support voting rts bill --- now called “Bloody Sunday” March 7, mi walk to Statehouse to support voting rts bill --- now called “Bloody Sunday” March 7, 1965 Requesting Gov Wallace to assist in voter registration Requesting Gov Wallace to assist in voter registration met w/ police & stampede met w/ police & stampede Gained national attention Gained national attention
**Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act in August 1965 **The 24 th Amendment, banning poll taxes, was passed in 1965 “Do you mind reciting the United States Constitution for me please?”
MLK Died in April 1968 After King’s death, SNCC turned more aggressive --- Stokley Carmichael took over and became associated w/ Black Panthers and Black Power After King’s death, SNCC turned more aggressive --- Stokley Carmichael took over and became associated w/ Black Panthers and Black Power
VI. The Black Panthers Attempted to create a 3rd party Attempted to create a 3rd party Influenced by Marx, Influenced by Marx, Lenin and Mao Fought police brutality Fought police brutality Questioned number Questioned number of Blacks in Vietnam
But Race Riots and Protests in the late 60’s and early 70’s affected many cities and public opinion
Places like Detroit, Los Angeles (Watts), NYC and even Rochester were scenes of riots and destruction of property and neighborhoods “our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white – separate & unequal” ---The Kerner Commission 1968
1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico Smith later told the media that he raised his right, black- glove-covered fist in the air to represent black power in America while Carlos' left, black-covered fist represented unity in black America. Together they formed an arch of unity and power. The black scarf around Smith's neck stood for black pride and their black socks (and no shoes) represented black poverty in racist America. Smith later told the media that he raised his right, black- glove-covered fist in the air to represent black power in America while Carlos' left, black-covered fist represented unity in black America. Together they formed an arch of unity and power. The black scarf around Smith's neck stood for black pride and their black socks (and no shoes) represented black poverty in racist America.black powerblack power
Which is more effective? accommodation and working within the system ---- accommodation and working within the system ----or dissent ---- challenging, possibly threatening, the status quo? dissent ---- challenging, possibly threatening, the status quo?
The federal government helped businesses and colleges set up affirmative action programs that are intended to prevent discrimination against employees or applicants for employment on the basis of "color, religion, sex, or national origin.”
I. The Women’s Movement was shaped By questioning Traditional roles and women’s search for Access to the money, Knowledge, Opportunity and power Controlled by men 1963
A. NOW was formed to Bring National Attention To women’s Issues: Equal pay, Reproductive Rights, Sexual discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Equal Opportunities
1.Equal Pay Act of 1963 – (Equal pay for equal work) 2. Civil Rights Act of Affirmative Action --- jobs & public colleges should reflect the make up of the community 4. Title IX --- equity in funding for high school and college sports programs 5. Military open to women (now including combat positions) But the Women’s movement did have some SUCCESS:
success (?)…continued 6. Roe v Wade, ruled the 9 th Amendment’s implied “right to privacy” Prohibits states from keeping a woman from having an abortion in the first trimester. Considered a success by “pro-choice” advocates. Considered murder by “pro-life” advocates.
Women changed society 6. Women in Gov’t --- Sandra Day O’Connor was 1 st female Supreme Court Justice (1981) 7. Women start to break “the glass ceiling” and become CEO’s doctors, lawyers, & business professionals
Success: The Indian Self-Determination Act of gained control over aid programs and nation schools The Indian Claims Commission --- has worked to settle claims by Native peoples regarding land lost in unfair agreements in the past. Awarded millions of dollars Transferred to state by state cases over land. EXAMPLE: our local Oneida nation Granted special rights to open casinos and/or tax free zones
Native Americans changed our culture Dee Brown wrote Bury my Heart at Wounded Knee 1972 which aroused public interest in the plight of NA’s. Dances with Wolves in 1990 brought attention to their history
Rachel Carson III. The Environmental Movement is focused On pressuring the gov’t To take action to address The Excesses of business’ Impact on air & water Quality --- pollution & Toxic waste dumping
This groundbreaking book was an Important expose of Use of the Pesticide DDT Raised questions About other toxic chemicals in the Environment
Environmental Activist Groups informed the public and fought environmental hazards Greenpeace Sierra Club World Wildlife Fund Nature Conservancy Natural Land Trust Natural Resources Defense Council
EX: Love Canal located near Buffalo was found to be a site where companies dumped PCB’s which gave neighbors birth defects.
EX: Coal burning plants In the Midwest Contributed to Acid Rain in the North East
Ex: Exxon Valdez Spill March million gallon oil spill into Prince William Sound in Alaska
BP Gulf Oil Spill in 2010 Deepwater Oil Spill that lasted for 87 days in the Gulf of Mexico 210 million gallons of oil
Onondaga Lake Mercury contamination has been a major pollution issue. Between 1946 and 1970, 165,000 pounds of mercury was dumped into Onondaga Lake by Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation. The lake is also subject of a land right action filed on March 11, 2005 by the Onondaga Nation.
SUCCESS meant new REGULATIONS for Businesses: 1. Clean Air Acts – “Café” standards 2. Water Quality Improvement Act 3. Est. of Superfund for Toxic Waste Clean-up 4. Environmental Impact Studies Required for construction 5. Environmental Protection Agency— Est. by Pres. Nixon to enforce Environmental laws & codes 6. State Departments of Environmental Conservation
Success includes increased public awareness of environmental issues since the 1970’s First “Earth Day” in 1970 & then the idea was revived in 1990 ‘til today Recycling programs Energy conservation a priority for many (tax cuts) Concerns about global warming/climate change NIMBY “Not in my backyard”
Since there is no national law that mandates recycling, state and local governments often introduce recycling requirements. A number of U.S. states, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Vermont have passed laws that establish deposits or refund values on beverage containers. Recycling in the United States
IV. Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta and the United Farm Workers & La Raza Unida
They use boycotts and Protests to demonstrate The need for The end to pesticide use, Better wages, and Better working conditions For farm workers. Not covered by federal Laws like minimum Wage.
Immigration issues Immigration Act of 1965 ended quotas based on national origin that had favored North/West European people Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986 requires employers to verify citizenship status --- allowed an amnesty program for illegals
V.Consumer & Workers Rights Advocates fought To make gov’t More responsible for The quality and Safety of products
SUCCESS: 1. The Lemon Law 2. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (est. under Nixon) 3. Consumer Products Safety Commission 4.Truth in Labeling Laws 5.FDA
VI. Disabled Americans gained greater Access to public facilities, Education, jobs & funds Through strong lobbying Efforts and attention to Vietnam Veterans
SUCCESS: **Rehabilitation Act 1973 **Education for all Handicapped Children Act of fed funds to schools **“least restrictive environment” laws lead to Inclusion and mainstreaming **ADA
Public facilities need to meet Federal standards allowing access
Americans reacted to a rise in civil rights activism "As a mother, I know that homosexuals cannot biologically reproduce children; therefore, they must recruit our children" and "If gays are granted rights, next we'll have to give rights to prostitutes and to people who sleep with St. Bernards and to nail biters." [people who sleep withSt. Bernards [
VII. ACT-UP and National Gay Task Force fought to bring attention to the AIDS crisis and Gay Rights Harvey Milk
Famous people began to acknowledge they had AIDS This helped raise awareness along with the understanding that anyone could get AIDS Rock Hudson Magic Johnson
Gays in the military became an issue during the Clinton Administration 1993 “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue” policy adopted Repealed in 2010 by President Obama