Presentation on theme: "I MPACT A SSESSMENT OF THE C OMMUNITY -B ASED F OREST M ANAGEMENT IN THE P HILIPPINES : A C ASE S TUDY OF CBFM S ITES IN N UEVA V IZCAYA Elizabeth T. Carig."— Presentation transcript:
I MPACT A SSESSMENT OF THE C OMMUNITY -B ASED F OREST M ANAGEMENT IN THE P HILIPPINES : A C ASE S TUDY OF CBFM S ITES IN N UEVA V IZCAYA Elizabeth T. Carig May 16, 2011 Mt. Palali, Bansing, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
I NTRODUCTION Community-Based Forest Management Program Overall strategy for forest and forestland (FFL) management Objectives: provide a healthy environment, develop the socio- economic condition of involved communities, encourage social justice and ensure fair access and distribution of benefits Three-types of land tenure instrument issued: - Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC) – individuals/family, 25 years duration - Community-Based Forest Mgt. Agreement (CBFMA) – Peoples organization, 25 years duration - Certificate of Ancestral Land/Domain Title (CALT/CADT) – absolute ownership Coverage: 5.97 million hectares of FFL, 66.3% of the 9 million hectares target of DENR for devolution About 690,691 households beneficiaries from 2,877 people’s organizations
O BJECTIVE OF THE S TUDY 1.To establish the ‘before’ condition of livelihood and income, forest condition and forest equity (LIFE) in the study sites; 2.To assess the impact of CBFMP implementation on LIFE several years after the issuance of tenure instrument; 3.To find out the issues and problems affecting CBFM program implementation; and 4.To put forward recommendations that would provide basis for improving site specific management in particular and the CBFM program policy in general.
METHODOLOGY 1. Sample Size Barangay (Village) Covered No. Active of PO members (N) No. of Sample (n) Sample size as percent of population Baresbes CSC541833.33 Madiangat CSC521834.62 Bansing CBFMA1082725.00 Buenavista CBFMA1513825.17 Total36510127.67 2. Data collection methods Sample size of respondents for each village Questionnaire survey Focus group discussions and Key informants interview Direct field observation Map overlay
Map of the Philippines S TUDY A REA Barangay/ Village Tenure Instrument Area (hectare) Year Issued Tenure Existence BaresbesCSC1361994-199615 years MaddiangatCSC3771994-199615 years BansingCBFMA2,99920037 years BuenavistaCBFMA3,000199911 years
Main Livelihood Before Tenure Issuance After Tenure Issuance No.% % No livelihood1716.83-- Vegetable Gardening3635.644948.51 Rice Farming2726.733332.67 Poaching of timber and other forest products76.93-- Carpentry65.9476.93 Regular Employment43.9665.94 Others (Driving, rice milling, overseas works)43.9665.94 Total101100101100 Impact of the CBFM Program on Livelihood Before tenure Issuance: Vegetable gardening and rice farming are the major livelihoods Timber poaching prevalent in Bansing CBFMA After Tenure Issuance: Withdrawal of forest resources was restricted – timber poaching and charcoal making stopped Revert to farming; Diversification (agricultural crops, livestock and orchard) to cope with change
Significant difference on Respondents’ no. of livelihoods before and after tenure issuance Impact of the CBFM Program on Livelihood No. of Livelihood 1. Increase in the no. of livelihood opportunities: reforestation and agroforestry projects non-forest-based livelihoods (livestock dispersal, fossilized flower production, agricultural trading) 2. Control of destructive activities – timber poaching, charcoal making, shifting cultivation
Total Income of Respondents Before and After Tenure Issuance Impact of the CBFM Program on Income Income RangeBefore Tenure IssuanceAfter Tenure Issuance (In PhP)No.% % No income1918.81 -- < 10,000.0010.99 -- >10,000-30,0003231.6812 11.88 >30,000-70,0004241.5860 59.41 >70,000-140,00076.9321 20.79 >140,000-250,000 --7 6.93 >250,000-500,000 --1 0.99 Total101100101100 Paired Sample t testdf = 100Sig. (2-sided) = 0.000 Perceived Income Change No.% Slightly Decreased76.93 No Change2625.74 Slightly Increased6665.35 Significantly Increased21.98 Total101100 27 (39.71%) of 68 – CBFMP has no connection; income from other sources 41 (60.29%) of 68 – CBFMP affected income change Perceived Change in Income
Barangay Average Family size Approximate Income of Respondents in 2009 (In PhP) AnnualMonthly Baresbes CSC5.061,295.225,107.90 Maddiangat CSC4.3991,855.227,654.60 Bansing CBFMA4.2260,872.595,072.70 Buenavista CBFMA4.7455,486.974,623.90 PhP84,205.00 - 2007 Annual per capita income required for a family of 5. PhP67,364.00 - 2007 Annual per capita income required for a family 4. Majority of the respondents are still below the poverty threshold; Only respondents from Maddiangat CSC have income above the poverty threshold. Average Family Size and Mean Annual/Monthly Income of Respondents per Barangay Impact of the CBFM Program on Income
Impact of the CBFM Program on Forest Condition Forest Condition ImpactRemark 1 & 2. Forest Area and Land Use Increased, improved -Natural forest increased from 4,260 has. to 5,186 has. -1,217 hectares tree plantation (734 hectares in Buenavista) -Brushland/grassland decreased from 1,770 has. to 475.50 has. 3 & 4. Water Quality/ Quantity and Landslides/ Soil Erosion Deteriorating -Potable water continue to dwindle -Water quality (turbidity) deteriorated due to human activities -High flows/river inundation - rivers became silted -Water easily gets muddy and murky after a rain -Intense surface run-off causing soil erosion and landslides 5. Forest Fire Improved -Enforcement of policies – no use of fire in land preparation -Coordinated burning/clearing of lands -Formation of Forest protection teams -Impact: Natural regeneration 6. Biodiversity Flora - Improved -Higher elevation forest protected and conserved -Grasslands in lower elevation - converted to tree plantation Fauna - Declining -Wildlife seldom seen in lower elevation/individual claims -Higher elevation – no significant change; forest protection activities
Impact of the CBFM Program on Forest Equity FactorBeforeAfter 1. Participation in PO activities a.Community Meetings No collective action Loose, no organization No constitution and by-laws (CBL) No local policies Improved Associations formed and registered, CBL crafted 80.25% - male participation; 95% - female participation b. Forest Dev’t Activities Favored men Improved Low participation in two CSC area (66%-89%) High participation in two CBFMA area (57-100%) Women participation has increased 2.Access to Livelihood Favored the rich and powerful (elite capture) Employment in reforestation projects favored men Needs improvement 77-83% from two CSC has not receive any support or reforestation project 81- 86% from two CBFMA has received support Elite capture still exists 3.Access to leadership/ PO leadership Leadership was held by the Barangay Council Improved CBL - requirements, term of office, etc. Regular election of officers in two CBFMA project Irregular election in two CSC project
Respondents’ Level of Satisfaction On the Impact of CBFMP to LIFE Respondents ’ Level of Satisfaction on the Impact of CBFMP to LIFE IndicatorWMI Level of Satisfaction Livelihood2.93Less Satisfied Income2.99Less Satisfied Forest Condition3.56Satisfied Forest Equity2.93Less Satisfied Scale: 1.0-1.80 = No comment 1.81-2.60 = Not Satisfied 2.61-3.4 = Less satisfied 3.41-4.2 = Satisfied 4.21-5.0 = Strongly satisfied
Issues and Problems A. On improvement of Livelihood and Income 1.Livelihoods introduced were mostly short-term while farm inputs (fruit-bearing seedlings, coconut seedlings, rattan seedlings) are long-gestating; 2.Development of alternative livelihoods not explored; 3.Farm-to-market roads remained undeveloped; 4.Local communities lack financial and management capabilities 5.Large areas ( 1,217 hectares) including individual land holdings were used for tree plantations
Issues and Problems B. Operational and Institutional aspect 1.Institutional partnership not installed, no involvement of local government units 2.Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) Team not organized and M&E Tool not established 3.Vending or “selling” of rights over CSC areas is prevalent in two CSC projects 4.Unstable policies - suspension of issuance and renewal of tenure instrument is still in effect, timber harvesting, Resource Use Permit Approval, etc. 5.No clear roles/responsibility of DENR and ENRO of provincial LGU on the management and supervision of devolved areas
CONCLUSION 1.Issuance of land tenure instrument democratized the access of local communities to public lands. 2.Positive impacts on forest condition – increased forest area, improved land use, controlled forest fire, natural regeneration. 3.Forest equity has improved (access to leadership and distribution of benefits needs to be improved) 4.Improvement of livelihood and income is not a priority of the CBFM program - - - livelihood support is still bias towards forest cover improvement. DENR/government emerged as winner; local communities as losers.
RECOMMENDATION To Improve LIFE 1.Develop alternative livelihoods; a.Community-Based Ecotourism projects (Senora and Dayog falls) b.Tiger grass production in grassland areas – softbroom-making for women c.Introduce farming techniques to maximise use of lands --- shade-loving species to be integrated in existing tree plantations. 2.Skills development for women; 3.Limited funds should be pooled to sustain IEC and capability- building trainings; 4.Encourage use of traditional techniques on natural resources management (muyong - woodlots); 5.Create a policy environment that will allow tenure holders to harvest planted trees.
RECOMMENDATION To improve CBFM Policy Alternative policy: 1.Partnership with municipal local government units should be strengthened; 2.Co-signatory to land tenure instrument: -Annual Internal revenue allotment -Various offices which could be tapped to cater to the needs of upland communities
RECOMMENDATION For Further Study 1.In depth study of water flow and discharge as basis for the collection of water users fee from end users (lowland irrigators and Ramon Hydroelectric power plant). 2.Analysis of the impact of climate change on upland livelihoods and adaptation measures adopted by upland farmers. 3.A study on the facilitating or hindering factors affecting Forest Land Use Plan implementation in the municipality of Quezon. 4.A comparative study on the institutional arrangement between a community issued with CBFM Agreement and co-management MOA.