Opposites Home Soil Defensive Liberty Guerilla Warfare Long Rifle Government? Trained Troops Well Supported (Indians, mercenaries) Navy Officers Loyalists Popularity?
The World Turned Upside Down Washington given commission of the Continental Army- compromise with the Southern colonies Character Doesn’t win much but continually fields in army- wears out British resolve
Early Pre-fighting 14 months before the declaration of independence… Remaining loyal- but fighting independence Concord & Lexington Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill) May have lost engagements, but the victories were costly for the British.
Reconciliation? Olive Branch Petition… Bunker Hill- George III- breaking of the Olive Branch Hessians hired (soldier from Hess- but all mercenaries are called Hessians) Why bring outsiders?
Canadian Invasion 1775 General Richard Montgomery & Benedict Arnold invade from the south to create a 14 th colony Thought French would join up- but defeated at Quebec Montgomery killed- Arnold shot in the leg.
Common Sense Most colonists are still loyal to the king (threat of hanging, drawing & quartering etc.) Thomas Paine writes common sense- No where in the physical universe does a smaller body control a larger one. Using the Bible and common language- explains the idea of popular government ?republicanism vs. social hierarchy- fear of mob rule
Independence Richard Henry Lee- June 6 th … “right ought to be, free and independent states” Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence Loyalists (Tories) vs. Patriots (Whigs) Minority movement (rebels) Conservatives and wealthy remained loyal. Along with clergy, British officers etc. After independence- not wide persecution (ie Reign of Terror)
Round 1 1776 Washington vs William Howe British evacuate Boston Concentrate efforts on New York- take Long Island More Defeats but no pursuit- Howe’s experience at Bunker hill made him overly cautious Brooklyn Heights- August 1776 White Plains- October 1776 Retreat and Desertion Trenton & Princeton- crossing the Delaware.
Round 2 1777 Attempts at splitting the colonies in two: Hudson River Valley Ft. Ticonderoga (sole protection against Northern Invasion) Saratoga: Horatio Gates, Benedict Arnold vs. Gen. “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne British Gen. Howe does not meet up with Burgoyne- instead attack Philadelphia Washington defeated at Brandywine & Germantown but delays Howe (Philadelphia captured Howe!) Burgoyne eventually encircled by colonial militia and forced to surrender. Arnold shot again in the leg- loses it. Washington will spend most the war hemming in the British in New York (can’t join forces in the South)
Between Rounds British reconciliation? Ben Franklin in France- diplomacy pivotal French- Treaty of Alliance- becomes a world war with Spain, Holland entering later in 1779 Armed Neutrality ensues (Russia and others poised to attack) Makes the war very costly Valley Forge- Baron von Steuben
Round 3 The West 1778-1779 Arnold gives up West Point and joins the British… Washington- “who can we trust now?” Indian fighting- British would halt colonial expansion George Clark- seizes former French forts by surprise. Fts. Kaskakia Cahokia Recapture of Vincennes Forces the British to later give up the Ohio valley at the Paris peace talks. Also, privateers led by John Paul Jones attacked British shipping
Round 4 The South 1780-1781 Attempts to unite with Southern loyalists- roll up the colonies beginning with Georgia heading north Savannah & Charleston Kings Mountain- frontiersmen (bloody frontier fighting) Fighting Quaker Nathaniel Green- loses battles but wins campaigns. Colonial tide’s turn at Cowpens & Gulford Siege of Yorktown 1781 (Washington and the French from the north with French encirclement by sea)
Aftermath Treaty of Paris 1783 Reasons for American victory
AP: Bell Work… place these events in the correct order! Lexington & Concord Second Continental Congress (Olive Branch Petition) Stamp Act Punitive Acts (Boston Port Bill, Mass. Gov’t Act, Administration of Justice Act, New Quartering Act) Stamp Act Congress Boston Massacre Declaration of Independence Sugar Act Tea Act Common Sense Boston Tea Party First Continental Congress Bunker Hill
Bell Work… Continued Sugar Act Stamp Act Stamp Act Congress Boston Massacre Tea Act Boston Tea Party Punitive Acts (Boston Port Bill, Mass. Gov’t Act, Administration of Justice Act, New Quartering Act) First Continental Congress Lexington & Concord Second Continental Congress (Olive Branch Petition) Bunker Hill Common Sense Declaration of Independence