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CH. 8: AMERICA SECEDES FROM THE EMPIRE. The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition July 1775 All 13 colonies present Goal: make the.

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 8: AMERICA SECEDES FROM THE EMPIRE. The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition July 1775 All 13 colonies present Goal: make the."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH. 8: AMERICA SECEDES FROM THE EMPIRE

2 The Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition July 1775 All 13 colonies present Goal: make the wrongs right for the colonist, not independence Discuss defense

3 GW for Leadership Virginian Wealthy Trusted Great character “moral” Self-disciplined

4 C. Fighting in the North and South 1. May 1775: Ft. Ticonderoga, NY; NE militia win 2. June 1775: Breeds Hill aka Bunker Hill, Ma. a. >1000 British casualties = b. King George sees colonists as rebels; rejects OBP 3. American forces sent to Canada but retreat by summer Va. Gov. retreats to British ships

5 Hessians

6 Should we take Canada? (Dec. 1775) Sure, why not? Would be considered an offensive war Contradicts initial defensive stance taken by Congress Still no call for independence

7 Thomas Paine: Common Sense Republic = Independence! Reminiscent of town hall meetings and annual elections Some favored a “natural aristocracy”

8 Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson (1776)

9 Declaration of Independence

10 Independence Hall

11 The Patriots aka Whigs 1. Colonist who wanted independence from Britain 2. New England 3. Continental Army and militia; differences? 4. National community growing 5. Women’s contribution: a. Run farms b. Nurses c. On battlefield

12 Loyalists aka Tories 1. 16% of colonist a. Wealthy b. Older c. Educated d. More recent immigrants e. Clergymen - paid by crown f. Those who feared change g. Middle colonies 2. Benedict Arnold – a. traitor to the Patriots b. Well hated in “America”

13 The Campaign for NY and NJ 1. Several losses for GW early on in NY. a. British under leadership of Gen. Cornwallis b. demoralizing for Americans 2. Battle of Trenton (NJ/Dec. 1776) a. Took British and Hessians by complete surprise b. Serious moral booster for Americans !

14 D. The Northern Campaigns of Gen. Burgoyne loses Saratoga (10/’77) = 2. Europeans believe colonist have a chance 3. French formally enters the war thanks to Ben Franklin 4. Valley Forge a. GW’s troop under strained conditions b. usually exaggerated

15 Baron von Steuben Prussian drill master Trains colonial soldiers

16 Then came…

17 Yorktown, (NY Oct. 1791)

18 North America after the Treaty of Paris, Main issues for Colonists a. Acknowledge independence b. Rights to lands to the Mississippi River c. Withdrawal of British troops d. Fishing rights off of Newfoundland waters 2. Main issues for GB a. Consider return of loyalist property b. Allow GB to collect debt 3. Negotiated by BF, J. Adams, J. Jay -Jay careful not to replace GB w/ France; therefore, looked for interest of

19 New National Symbols


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