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An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Digital TV & MPEG-2 Technology MPEG 101 and PSIP for Cable SCTE-New Jersey Chapter October.

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Presentation on theme: "An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Digital TV & MPEG-2 Technology MPEG 101 and PSIP for Cable SCTE-New Jersey Chapter October."— Presentation transcript:

1 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Digital TV & MPEG-2 Technology MPEG 101 and PSIP for Cable SCTE-New Jersey Chapter October 5, 2010

2 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 2 Basic MPEG and PSIP in Cable Triveni Digital presents Digital Television: MPEG 101 and PSIP In Cable

3 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 3 Let’s talk about: Digital Television DTV is more about Data Transmission. “Just so happens that some of the data being transmitted ends up as Video”.

4 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 4 Digital Television There is much more data beside video being transmitted !

5 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 5 Let’s first talk about: DTV = Data Casting Data is organized into ‘tables’ Examples:  Program Association ‘Table’  Progam Map ‘Table’  Conditional Access ‘Table’  Virtual Channel ‘Table’  Master Guide ‘Table’  Event Information ‘Tables’

6 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 6 MPEG 101 Let’s talk about some basic MPEG transport technology

7 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. MPEG 101+

8 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 8  MPEG Transport Stream Basics  Packet header  PSI Tables metadata  PAT  PMT  Elementary streams  Encoding/Group Of Pictures (GOP)  Synchronization  Buffering  IP monitoring & synchronization  Monitoring and Troubleshooting streams  StreamScope architecture  Typical use case Training Overview PSIP Tables metadata Static tables Dynamic tables In The 2 nd half of this presentation:

9 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 9 DTV Broadcast Stream  Special case of MPEG-2 transport stream  May contain multiple virtual channels  Video channels  A video stream  One or more audio streams  Possibly one or more data streams  Audio channels  One or more audio streams  Possibly one or more data streams  Data-only channels  One or more data streams

10 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 10 MPEG-2 Transport Stream  Made up of 188-byte transport packets, each with 4 byte header & 184 byte payload  Each packet contains any ONE kind of information– audio, video, data, PSI, … One Transport (MPEG) Packet

11 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 11  We say transport packets have multiple interleaved elementary streams -- audio, video, data, PSI,...  Packets belonging to the same elementary stream are identified by packet id (PID) in packet header (same color in our illustrations). MPEG-2 Transport Stream These three packets are the same color. They have the same PID and belong to the same Elementary stream. MPEG-2 Transport Stream (Contd.)

12 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 12 MPEG-2 Transport Stream – Header Fields Noteworthy fields: 1)Sync Byte – Find packet boundary 2)PID – Used while demultiplexing stream 3)Continuity Counter – Identify packet loss 4)PCR stamp in adaptation field – Clock sync

13 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 13 MPEG Header Fields: Sync Byte  When a decoder first tunes, all it sees are a stream of 0’s and 1’s  The decoder must first identify the beginning of packets before it can interpret the stream  The decoder uses the Sync Byte field to do this MPEG Data Prior to Packet Sync

14 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 14 MPEG Header Fields: Sync Byte (Contd.)  The Sync Byte of a packet is always 0x47 (Hexadecimal) or binary  The decoder looks for strings of zeros and ones which match the pattern of the sync byte (see red below)

15 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 15 MPEG Header Fields: Sync Byte (Contd.)  Once the decoder finds a 0x47 in the stream, it looks 187 bytes down the stream, and looks for another 0x47  If it finds three Sync Bytes in a row, then the Decoder has Found Sync and assumes packet boundaries from then on  Each packet is tested for 0x47 as soon as it arrives. If a packet arrives with an incorrect sync byte, the decoder starts over. This is called SYNC LOSS Found Sync Sync Lost

16 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 16 MPEG Header Fields: Sync Byte (Contd.)  If you don’t have Packet Sync, the decoder cannot find packet boundaries. You will not be able to decode at all  Packet Sync problems typically occur in hardware at packet boundaries during format converters, edge devices, demodulators etc:  ASI to Gig-E  ASI to Microwave or QAM  Satellite to ASI

17 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 17 Data channel PSIP Tables Video Encoder Audio Encoder Data- enhanced Audio/Video channel Audio Encoder Video Encoder Audio/Video channel MPEG-2 Transport Stream Data Server PSIP Generator Multi- plexer PIDs Defined - ATSC Bitstream

18 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 18 PIDs Defined - Digital Cable Bitstream Video/Audio channel Video Encoder Audio Encoder Video/Audio channel Audio Encoder Video Encoder Video/Audio channel PAT PMT Null Video Audio CAT MPEG-2 Transport Stream Video Encoder Audio Encoder Multi- plexer Video Encoder Audio Encoder Video/Audio channel Video Audio Video Audio Video Audio

19 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 19 Transport Stream Demultiplexing  When a set top box first receives a Transport Stream, it demultiplexes that stream based on PID. Decoder: Receiver or set top box

20 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 20 MPEG 101 Knowledge Check #1 Q:How many of what must the decoder see before it can begin decoding a digital video stream ? Q: How many of what must the decoder see before it can begin decoding a digital video stream ?

21 An LG Electronics Company PSI Meta Data In the Stream

22 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 22 ‘Metadata’ ?  Data about included data, is metadata  Metadata tells the decoder which kinds of information are contained in each PID, and which PID’s go together.  For DTV, we’re interested in two kinds of metadata:  Program Specific Information (PSI)  Program Specific Information (PSI) - Tables in the stream defined in the MPEG standards  Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP)  Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) - Tables defined in ATSC A/65

23 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 23 PSI Tables (MPEG-2 Tables)  PAT - Program Association Table  Appears in PID 0x0000  Identifies MPEG-2 programs in transport stream and gives PIDs for their PMTs  The PAT is on PID 0x00. This is the first PID or ‘Base PID’ a MPEG decoder looks for  PMT - Program Map Table Identifies elementary streams in program (virtual channel), and gives their PIDs.

24 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 24 PMT 1 Video PID 0x31 Audio PID 0x34 Audio PID 0x35 PCR_PID 0x31 PMT 2 Video PID 0x41 Audio PID 0x44 Audio PID 0x45 PCR_PID 0x41 PMT 3 Video PID 0x51 Audio PID 0x54 Audio PID 0x55 PCR_PID 0x51 PAT (always on PID 0x0) Station TSID PMT 1 -> On PID 0x30 PMT 2 -> On PID 0x40 PMT 3 -> On PID 0x50 PAT (always on PID 0x0) Station TSID PMT 1 -> On PID 0x30 PMT 2 -> On PID 0x40 PMT 3 -> On PID 0x50 PID 0x30 PID 0x40 PID 0x50 MPEG-2 PSI Tables (Contd.)

25 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 25 Decoder: Receiver or Set top Box PSI PID assignments These PIDS go together PSI PID assignments These PIDS go together “WXXX Channel Video” PID 0x31 “WXXX Channel Audio” PID 0x34 MPEG-2 PSI Tables (Contd.)

26 An LG Electronics Company Continuity Counter

27 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 27 MPEG Header: Continuity Counter  The continuity counter is a 4 bit field in the header which increments by 1 each time a packet comes out on a specific PID: … … All Packets PID 0x52  When a PID ‘skips’ one value of the continuity Counter, we call it a ‘Continuity Error.’ This means one or more packets were lost … … All Packets PID 0x54 Continuity Error Here

28 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 28 MPEG Header: Continuity Counter (Contd.)  Packet loss causes many other kinds of analysis to ‘reset’ or give bogus results.  Any analysis based on an average over many packets will automatically reset when it encounters continuity problems.  Since a continuity error mean ‘some packets’ have been lost, frequent continuity errors should be one of the FIRST things you look for when debugging. Identifies WHEN we lose Packets, but not HOW MANY!

29 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 29 Three Things to Remember  Three main monitoring and troubleshooting lessons:  Fix Continuity Problems first  Continuity errors create bogus alarms in other areas.  Until you resolve the continuity problems, it will be very hard to determine if you have other problems in your stream  To Be Discussed

30 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 30 MPEG 101 Knowledge Check #3 Q: If the continuity counter on a given PID changes from 3 to 7, how many packets have been lost?

31 An LG Electronics Company Elementary streams: Encoding Video & Audio Data

32 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 32 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding MPEG Video  It all starts at the encoder  The encoder compresses baseband video & audio  Video is a sequence of frames  A frame is a single image from a video sequence  In USA, one frame occurs every 33 milliseconds  Each frame is encoded in one of three ways:

33 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 33 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding I Frames  I-picture: intra-picture encoding, similar to jpeg encoding (exploiting spatial redundancy).  Compressed solely on information found in the frame  Highest amount of data of all other frame types  ‘Group Of Pictures’ always start with an I frame  B & P frames are calculated from the I frame  “I” stands for “Intra” coded

34 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 34 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding B Frames  B-picture: bi-directional encoding, using motion adjusted deltas from a previous and a future frame (exploiting temporal redundancy).  Uses Data from preceding and following I & P frames  Depends on data before and/or after in video sequence  Cannot calculate from another B frame

35 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 35 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding P Frames  P-picture: predictive encoding, using motion adjusted deltas from a previous reference frame (exploiting temporal redundancy).  Compressed using data from closest preceding I or P frame  GOP with back-to-back P frames usually indicate fast motion

36 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 36 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding  Encoder emits sequence of encoded frames  Sizes of encoded frames vary  Encoded frames are packed into packetized elementary stream (PES) packets.  PES packets are packed into MPEG-2 transport packets (All packets for single video stream have same PID value)  Overall compression ratio is 50:1 or more  Closed captioning associated with video frame is encoded here

37 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 37 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding Group of Pictures = GOP  Series of frames consisting of a single ‘I’ frame with P & B frames  A GOP begins with an ‘I’ frame and ends with last frame before the next ‘I’ frame  All frames within the GOP depend directly or indirectly on data from the I frame  Relationships between GOPs: Either OPEN or CLOSED  Closed GOP is self-contained. No dependance on data outside GOP  Open GOP can use data from I frame of following GOP

38 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 38 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding (Contd.) Example 1. Panning Camera Example 2. Moving Object I-pictureB-pictureI-picture B-pictureI-picture

39 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 39 MPEG-2 Video/Audio Encoding Typical GOP Structures P P P P P P I I B B B B B B B B B B B B BB B B P Frame Kb I Frame Kb B Frame 49.9 Kb Typical low motion GOP sequence P P P P P P I P P P P P P P P P P P P P PP P P P Frame 44.5 Kb I Frame Kb P Frame 59.9 Kb Typical high motion GOP sequence

40 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 40 ATSC/SCTE Audio Formats  ATSC uses AC-3 audio encoding, with up to 6 audio channels: left, right, center, left surround, right surround, low frequency enhancement.  The full set is often called 5.1 audio.  The sampling rate is always 48 kHz.  The encoded bit rate may be up to 384 kbps.

41 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 41 AC-3 Audio Encoding  Audio frames, each 32 milliseconds in length, are encoded.  Encoded frame size depends only on bitrate.  Encoded frames are packed into packetized elementary stream (PES) packets.  PES packets are packed into MPEG-2 transport packets. (All packets for single audio stream have same PID value.)

42 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 42 MPEG 101 Knowledge Check #4 Q: In MPEG-2 video encoding, what are the three video frame types called?

43 An LG Electronics Company Video and Audio Syncronization using PCR

44 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 44 Audio-Video Synchronization  Audio, video are encoded independently, must be synchronized during play  MPEG has to allow for great distances AND network processing between the Encoder and Decoder and still allow for Correct Decode of the transport stream

45 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 45 How to Assure Audio/Video Sync?  In order for the audio and video Elementary Streams to remain in Sync, the Encoder Clock and the Decoder Clock must remain in sync  The next few slides will demonstrate how this happens and what components to check when it fails…

46 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 46 Encoder Inserts PCR timestamps  When the encoder creates streams of packets, it embeds the current value of it’s 27 MHz clock into some of the packets in the stream  This time reference is called the PCR: Program Clock Reference  MPEG demands that one PCR packet appear in the stream every 100ms Encoder 27Mhz Clock MPEG Packets MPEG Packet with PCR Stamp

47 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 47 The Encoder and Decoder Clock  The MPEG encoder and MPEG decoder use a 27Mhz ‘clock’ to encode/decode incoming audio and video  The clock is actually a ‘counter’ which advances every 1/ seconds

48 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 48 The Encoder and Decoder Clock  The MPEG encoder and MPEG decoder use a 27Mhz ‘clock’ to encode/decode incoming audio and video  The clock is actually a ‘counter’ which advances every 1/ seconds

49 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 49 The Encoder and Decoder Clock  The MPEG encoder and MPEG decoder use a 27Mhz ‘clock’ to encode/decode incoming audio and video  The clock is actually a ‘counter’ which advances every 1/ seconds Massive Network Processing

50 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 50 PCR Timestamp Issue  What could conceptually cause PCR timestamp issues?  Encoder possibly time stamped incorrectly  Decoder possibly failed to consume time stamps  PCR packet was accidentally lost in transmission  When PCR time stamps go awry, we have “PCR jitter”

51 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 51 PCR Jitter Defined PCR Jitter is:  Difference between the Actual Value of the PCR time stamped by encoder and the Expected Value of the PCR as calculated by decoder based on the clock rate and the time at which the PCR value is received.  PCR Jitter spec: 500ns

52 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 52 PCR Rate (Frequency) Offset PCR Frequency Offset is:  Difference between the clock frequency calculated at decoder based on actual PCR values received and an “ideal” 27 MHz clock, which is the clock rate dictated by the MPEG-2 standard  PCR Frequency Offset Spec: +/- 810 Hz

53 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 53 PCR Intervals, Jitter and Rate PCR spec summary:  Transmit interval: 100 ms  Jitter: no more than 500 ns  Rate: 27 MHz +/- 810 Hz  Most streams seen in the field are compliant, but every now and then extreme jitter shows up.  Here’s Why

54 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 54 PCR Packet Spacing Before Muxing  Note the Number of Packets between each PCR packet in each Input Stream Video 0x31 Video 0x41 Video 0x51 PIDPacket Spacing 0x312 Packets 0x411 Packet 0x510 Packets Transport Stream MUX

55 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 55 PCR Packet Spacing After Muxing  Note that the PCR packet spacing has changed! PIDOld SpacingNew Spacing 0x312 Packets8 Packets 0x411 Packet5 Packets 0x510 Packets2 Packets Video 0x31 Video 0x41 Video 0x51 Transport Stream MUX

56 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 56 Muxing Causes PCR Jitter  When we MUX multiple streams together, the spacing between the PCR packets in each stream CHANGES  The physical shift results in a TEMPORAL shift as well, throwing the time stamps off  The TEMPORAL shift in PCR values is referred to as “PCR jitter”

57 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 57  The MUX has to RESTAMP all the PCR values to correct for the change in the packet spacing – THIS IS VERY HARD TO DO  The more services on the output, the harder it is to restamp  The fewer ‘null’ packets at the output, the harder it is to restamp Muxing Causes PCR Jitter (Contd.)

58 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 58  What in your network facility could cause PCR timestamp issues?  Three of the most common are:  It can happen any time you MUX streams   It can happen at the source encoding  It can happen on any IP link – due to network lag PCR Timestamp Issue (Contd.)

59 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 59 PCR Jitter From Incorrect Encoding  If the MPEG encoder’s parameters are set up incorrectly, you can introduce jitter at the source  This is relatively rare, however  If a national programmer sent it’s stream up to the bird with jitter in it, the result would effect all receive sites !  Re-encoded streams at the headend may also create PCR jitter  Local broadcast streams could create PCR jitter at the encoder

60 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 60  What in your network facility could cause PCR timestamp issues?  Three of the most common are:  It can happen any time you MUX streams  It can happen at the source encoding   It can happen on any IP link – due to network lag PCR Timestamp Issue (Contd.)

61 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 61 PCR Jitter Due to IP Carriage  Network lag can conceal MPEG jitter problems on an IP link. The network jitter is usually so much larger than the PCR jitter that the PCR jitter is ‘lost in the noise.’  Hopefully, the IP-  ASI or IP-  QAM edge device will provide buffering and use ‘high level math’ to smooth out the network lag.  MT-40 provides a way to separate the Network Lag from PCR Jitter.

62 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 62 Q: What is the key element for synchronizing audio and video? MPEG 101 Knowledge Check #5

63 An LG Electronics Company Video and Audio Buffers & Presentation Time Stamp (PTS)

64 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 64 Presentation Time Stamp - PTS  Each Frame is marked with a PTS – “Presentation Time Stamp” – a positive number  The value of the PTS is set to the value of the Encoder Clock when the frame is encoded F1 PTS 500 F2 PTS 950 Packetizer MPEG Packets Encoder 27Mhz Clock 1,2,3,4…..

65 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 65 Packets Assigned to Decode Buffer  As packets flow into the Decoder, a space in memory is set aside for them, one buffer for each PID. MPEG Packets Buffer 1 Pid 0x31 Video Buffer 2 Pid 0x34 Audio

66 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 66 Reconstruction of Frames From Buffer  Packets form Video and Audio Frames in the buffer MPEG Packets Buffer 1 Pid 0x31 Video Buffer 2 Pid 0x34 Audio F1 PTS 500 F2 PTS 675 F3 PTS 950 F1 PTS 200 F2 PTS 990

67 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 67 The Magic of Decode  When the value of the Decode clock MATCHES the PTS on the frame, that frame is sent to the decode hardware MPEG Packets Buffer 1 Pid 0x31 Video Buffer 2 Pid 0x34 Audio F1 PTS 500 F2 PTS 675 F3 PTS 950 F2 PTS 990 F1 PTS 200 Decode Hardware

68 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 68 Another Frame Goes to Decode Hardware  Next Frame MPEG Packets Buffer 1 Pid 0x31 Video Buffer 2 Pid 0x34 Audio F1 PTS 500 F2 PTS 675 F3 PTS 950 F2 PTS 990 Decode Hardware

69 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 69 One More Frame Heads to Decode  And the next frame… MPEG Packets Buffer 1 Pid 0x31 Video Buffer 2 Pid 0x34 Audio F2 PTS 675 F3 PTS 950 F2 PTS 990 Decode Hardware

70 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 70 Audio and Video Buffers  Receiver must buffer audio and video frame data until presentation time.  If data appears too late in the transport stream, buffer underflow results.  If data appears too early in the transport stream, buffer overflow results.  Either condition results in garbled play or incorrect synchronization.  Different set top boxes may respond differently to the same underlying buffer violations

71 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 71  PCR values help the Encoder Clock and the Decoder Clock to remain in sync  PCR jitter can cause synchronization problems for elementary streams  Ensure  PCR jitter and frequency offsets are within standard limits  Elementary stream buffers limits are NOT violated  Large PCR jitter values can cause “Lip sync” error  Buffer over- or underflow problems may cause “tiling”, “pixelization”/”macroblocking” errors Summary: Audio/Video Sync

72 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 72 MPEG 101 Knowledge Check #6 Q: What is one potential result of “video buffer underflow” ?

73 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 73 Overall Jitter versus MPEG Jitter  Use ‘Overall’ or ‘MPEG’ jitter settings when measuring from constant bit rate sources like ASI  Use ‘MPEG’ jitter setting when measuring jitter on ‘Gig- E’ links to exclude the network associated jitter from the jitter calculation.  Use ‘Overall’ jitter setting when measuring jitter on ‘Gig-E’ links if you want to see the total jitter due to network lag AND MPEG issues (requires Gig-E w/PCR option)

74 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 74  Gigabyte Ethernet offers specific difficulties when monitoring PCR related issues  The network delay on a typical UDP network is usually orders of magnitude greater than the PCR Jitter detected on the network  Be sure to use the appropriate setting for ‘MPEG’ or ‘Overall’ jitter when measuring PCR on Gigabyte Ethernet networks (see previous slide) Overall Jitter versus MPEG Jitter (Contd.)

75 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 75 Three Things to Remember  Three main monitoring and troubleshooting lessons:  Fix Continuity Problems first  Continuity errors create bogus alarms in other areas  Until you resolve the continuity problems, it will be very hard to determine if you have other problems in your stream  Check for PCR jitter  PCR jitter can cause packet over- or underflow problems  Lip synch errors may also be result of PCR jitter  To Be Discussed

76 An LG Electronics Company MPEG Troubleshooting using an analyzer

77 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 77  With analog transmission, if audio/video did not have any anomalies on a TV set up in the studio, it would show up intact on the end user’s TV  For digital transmission, this assumption is NOT valid as digital signals rely on the decoder’s  Firmware implementation  Buffer sizes  Software decoding capability Why use a Transport Stream Analyzer?

78 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 78 Why use a Transport Stream Analyzer? (Contd.)  The transition to digital has introduced some specific challenges for broadcast engineers Not all Set top boxes will respond the same way to the same underlying problem Standards violations in digital Transport Streams may show up on a receiver only intermittently  The only streams which will consistently decode are those which are compliant  The best way to assure compliance is with a Transport stream Analyzer/Monitor

79 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 79 MT-40: Collaborative Mode Debugging  Two or more technicians use MT-40 to examine the same input.  Customers leverage subject matter experts from many different geographical locations WANWAN Equipment Room LAN MT- 40 MUX Encoder IRD Modulator Head End

80 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 80 Local DTV Station or Headend Network Chief Engineer’s Office Equipment Room Remote location with MT-40 MT-40 Visualization Client viewing all sources, all channels simultaneously MT-40 Monitoring local channel MT-40: Multi- Channel Fleet Monitoring

81 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 81 Troubleshooting Example – Audio Outage Customer calls into station or NOC – audio dropping out on their set In station video monitors & set top boxes do not have any problems How serious is this problem? Are other Customers seeing it? Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario

82 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 82 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Start at the end…..Off-air or combined RF output…. Transport Stream Analyzer RF Input (8VSB or QAM) ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP

83 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 83  Check of the MPEG analyzer shows Standards violation has occurred Troubleshooting Example (Contd.)

84 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 84 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Move back in the network toward the beginning....  Input to the QAM modulator OR….. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP Gigabit Ethernet Input

85 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 85 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Input to the transmitter…. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP ASI or SMPTE 310 Input

86 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 86  Standards violation is still present Troubleshooting Example (Contd.)

87 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 87 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Move further back….. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP ASI Input ASI Input

88 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 88  Standards violation is still present Troubleshooting Example (Contd.)

89 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 89 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  And further back….. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP ASI Input ASI Input

90 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 90 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Go all the way back to signal entry point….. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP QPSK Input

91 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 91 Troubleshooting Example (Contd.) Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Using record capability to collect data….. Transport Stream Analyzer ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP Record at this point

92 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 92 Summary: MPEG Monitoring Over the Long Term Satellite Dish QPSK Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers PSIP Gen Data Gen MUX Network Processing QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Television Transmitter Television Transmitter Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Broadcast Scenario Cable TV Scenario  Complete and continous monitoring….. Transport Stream Analyzer or Remote Monitor RF Input (8VSB or QAM) ASI Gigabit-IP, ASI or SMPTE 310 Gigabit-IP Error Alerts: SNMP, SMS, , Triggered Recording or Contact Closure Error Notification Analyze, Monitor or Record Streams at any of these points

93 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 93 Three Things to Remember  Three main monitoring and troubleshooting lessons:  Fix Continuity Problems first  Continuity errors create bogus alarms in other areas  Until you resolve the continuity problems, it will be very hard to determine if you have other problems in your stream  Check for PCR jitter  PCR jitter can cause packet over- or underflow problems  Lip synch errors may also be result of PCR jitter  Move Backward through your network as you debug  Isolate the offending device first, then go for detailed problem solving steps (recording a file, etc.)

94 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 94 Summary: MPEG’s 7 Basic Parameters Per ATSC standards:  PAT Interval: 100ms  PMT Interval: 400ms  PCR Interval: 100ms Max Jitter: 500ns Max Freq. Offset:+/- 810 Hz Also check:  Video Buffer  Audio Buffer

95 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 95 References  Information Technology -- Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information: Systems (MPEG-2 Systems standard), ISO/IEC  ATSC Digital Television Standard, ATSC Doc. A/53.  Program and System Information Protocol for Terrestrial Broadcast and Cable, ATSC Doc. A/65 (with amendments).  ATSC Data Broadcast Standard, ATSC Doc. A/90.  ATSC A/78 Recommended Practice on Bitstream Verification.  Video Over IP by Wes Simpson

96 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Let’s Talk PSIP in Cable How do you spell PSIP?

97 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 97 PSIP In Cable So What Is PSIP ? Technical answer: PSIP is a type of ‘metadata’ that enhances digital television transport streams. Defines virtual channels Enables tuning Provides an Electronic Program Guide Channel branding V-Chip

98 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 98 PSIP In Cable So What Is PSIP ? Practical answer: PSIP enhances the viewers experience: Increased Ease of Use Channel and Brand Recognition Navigating the Multitude of Services Offered

99 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 99 PSIP in cable “PSIP is Metadata“

100 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 100 PSIP In Cable Meta Data Mentioned earlier, what is it?

101 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 101 What is ‘metadata’? A form of ‘metadata’. The label tells you what is in the can. A form of ‘metadata’. The label tells you what is in the can. PSI and PSIP are types of ‘metadata’

102 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 102 What is ‘Metadata’ ?  Data about included data, is metadata  Metadata tells the decoder which kinds of information are contained in each PID, and which PID’s go together.  For DTV, we’re interested in two kinds of metadata:  Program Specific Information (PSI)  Program Specific Information (PSI) - Tables in the stream defined in the MPEG standards  Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP)  Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) - Tables defined in ATSC A/65

103 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 103 PSIP In Cable PSIP MetaData In the Stream (Program and System Information Protocol)

104 An LG Electronics Company Page 104 PSIP Background  PSIP  Program and System Information Protocol  Metadata inserted into broadcast stream  Enables:  Tuning to virtual channels  Displaying channel name (on channel changes)  Interactive electronic program guides (EPGs)  Automatic language selection for audio track  Caption decoding  “V-Chip” function (parental content blocking)  Accurate receiver time-of-day clock setting  Redistribution Control Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

105 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 105 Basic functions of PSIP Tables  Branding  Branding – Station call letters and channel number  Signaling  Signaling – V-Chip data, information about audio and Video PID’s, Virtual Channel Table  Announcement  Announcement – Electronic Program Guide (EPG)

106 An LG Electronics Company Page 106 Signaling vs. Announcement  Signaling  Information about what is "on now"  Used to assemble program elements into whole  Provides linkages  Ex: PMT and/or VCT used to link different components of television program (i.e. video and audio)  Used to define characteristics of current program (descriptors)  Captioning, ratings, redistribution…  Announcement  Information about what will be available in the future  Program Guide information (name, description schedule)  Characteristics of future programs (captioning, ratings, redistribution…)  Typically does not provide linkages between program elements Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

107 An LG Electronics Company Page 107 PSIP Generation Architecture Encoder(s) MUXMUX FIREWALLFIREWALL FIREWALLFIREWALL Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

108 An LG Electronics Company Page 108 PSIP metadata found in the ‘Payload’ Noteworthy fields: Payload contains PSIP, PAT, PMT metadata Adaptation Field Continuity Counter Sync Byte PID 188 Bytes Header (4 Bytes) PES 1 Adaptation Field (Optional) PID Sync Byte Continuity Counter PES x Or other Payload (Pat, PMT, PSIP, etc)……………………………... MPEG-2 Transport Stream PSIP metadata found in the packet ‘Payload’ Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

109 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 109 PSIP In Cable ATSC (A/65) PSIP Metadata North American Standard

110 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 110 DTV PSIP Tables Transmit Interval: 400ms  VCT - Virtual Channel Table Transmit Interval: 400ms - Identifies and describes virtual channels. *** Two Different Types of VCT: CVCT and TVCT *** Interval: 150ms  MGT - Master Guide Table Interval: 150ms - Appears in PID 0x1FFB. - Gives PIDs, sizes, and version numbers of other PSIP tables (except STT). A directory of all PSIP tables. Interval: 1,000ms (1 sec)  STT - System Time Table Interval: 1,000ms (1 sec) - Appears in PID 0x1FFB - Gives current UTC time.

111 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 111 DTV PSIP Tables (Contd.) Interval: 60,000ms (1 min)  RRT- Rating Region Table Interval: 60,000ms (1 min) - Describes content advisory system(s) being used to rate events.  EIT- Event Information Table - Gives titles, start times, durations, content advisory ratings of events (TV programs). Interval: Follows it’s EIT  ETT - Extended Text Table Interval: Follows it’s EIT - Gives extended textual descriptions of virtual channels and events. EIT has variable intervals: EIT-0: 500ms EIT-1: 3,000ms EIT-2 & up: 60,000ms

112 An LG Electronics Company Page 112 Details of FCC R&O – PSIP related  "…fully implement PSIP to the extent that ATSC A/65B requires."  Required transmission of all mandatory tables and descriptors  MGT, TVCT, EIT-0  3, STT, RRT (except region 1)  Required tables and descriptors must be populated with proper and correct information  At least 12 hours of populated EITs (EIT-0 thru 3)  EITs must contain correct schedule information  Each EIT contains 3 hours worth of event information  Major channel rules from PSIP (A/65B) adopted  Correct Major Channel number must be used  Correct TSIDs (Transport Stream ID) must be used Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

113 An LG Electronics Company Page 113 VCT -- Virtual Channel Concept (In General)  Breaks the link between RF channel number and user’s notion of channel number  Analog broadcast  “channel number” was the same as the RF carrier designation  Digital broadcast  “channel number” is defined by Virtual Channel Table (VCT)  One digital TS can include multiple channels of programming  8-VSB carrier freq. may have (probably) shifted during transition (June 2009) Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

114 An LG Electronics Company Page 114 VCT: Two Part Channel Numbers  1 st part: “major channel” (Original analog channel)  Example: 10.1, 10.2, 10.3  2 nd part: “minor channel” 10.1, 10.2, 10.3  Broadcasters retain their brand identity  Digital services groupable with analog  KXTV has been associated with Channel 10 for years; KXTV-DT can be found on Channel 10-1  They keep their brand in tact: (even though their RF carrier is now on Ch. 61)

115 An LG Electronics Company Page 115 Virtual Channel Table (VCT)  Has same info as PAT & PMTs, plus more.  Allows tuning by virtual major-minor channel number, rather than physical channel number and MPEG-2 “program” number.  Allows language track selection.  Allows channel name to be displayed on channel changes and in EPG.  ATSC receivers are designed to use VCT; may have trouble with PAT and PMTs alone. Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

116 An LG Electronics Company Page 116 Comparing PAT vs. VCT PAT (Program Association Table) Table ID Section Syntax Indicator Section Length Transport Stream ID (TSID) Version Number Current Next Indicator Section Number Last Section Number Program Number Program Map PID VCT (Virtual Channel Table) Table ID Section Syntax Indicator Section Length Transport Stream ID (TSID) Version Number Current Next Indicator Section Number Last Section Number ATSC protocol version Number of Channels in Section Short Name Major Channel Number Minor Channel Number Modulation Mode Channel TSID Program Number Extended Text Message Location Descriptor Length Descriptor ( ) Source ID Service Type Access Controlled Hidden / Hide Guide Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

117 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 117 PSIP and PSI Link PMT 1 (On PID 0x30) Video PID 0x31 Audio PID 0x34 PCR_PID 0x31 PAT (On PID 0x0) Station TSID PMT 1 -> On PID 0x30 PAT (On PID 0x0) Station TSID PMT 1 -> On PID 0x30 VCT On Pid 0x1FFB 11-1 WXIA Video PID 0x31 Audio PID 0x34 VCT On Pid 0x1FFB 11-1 WXIA Video PID 0x31 Audio PID 0x34 Table Information for a Digital Television Stream PAT and PMT TablesPSIP Tables

118 An LG Electronics Company Page 118 PAT points to PMT PAT points to PMT PAT points to PMT PSIP metadata tables: VCT, MGT, STT, EITs & ETTs PIDs in the Stream

119 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 119 PSIP In Cable ‘SI’ (Service Information) or TR aka: Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) International Standard

120 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 120 DVB ‘SI’ Tables  NIT – Network Information Table  SI Repetition – Interval – how often System Info is sent  SDT – Service Description Time Table  RST – Running Status Table  TDT – Time & Date Table  No Virtual Channel Table: Uses PAT/PMT & CAT DVB Standard uses different tables, different repetition rates than A/65

121 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 121 PSIP In Cable There is even more data in the stream! : Descriptors

122 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 122 PSIP In Cable: Service Descriptors What are ‘Descriptors’ ? Descriptors inform the viewer/receiver that services such as ‘Closed Captioning’ and ‘Alternate Audio’ are available in the stream.

123 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 123 PSIP In Cable  AC-3 audio descriptor  2 channel or Surround Sound ?  Which is Primary Audio, which is Secondary Audio?  Now includes ISO 639 langauge bit  Caption Service descriptor  Does stream contain closed captioning data?  If so, in what langauge?  Has captioning control information for the receiver  Content Advisory descriptor  Parental control (V-Chip) information  ISO 639 Langauge descriptor  Send this descriptor for older digital receivers  Redistribution Control descriptor  Similar to ‘copy right’ protection (could effect TiVO) Examples of Service Descriptors

124 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 124 PSIP In Cable What is TSID? Transport Stream ID (Uniquely identifies the Multiplex)  In terrestrial broadcast, helps distinguish between two stations on the same channel o Indicates which PSIP is correct for a given station  Used differently in Broadband/Cable  More on TSID later

125 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 125 PSIP In Cable So let’s put it all together and see how PSIP creates an Electronic Program Guide (EPG)

126 An LG Electronics Company Page 126 Main PSIP Tables System Time Table (STT) Master Guide Table (MGT) Virtual Channel Table (VCT) Event Information Table (EIT) Extended Text Table (ETT) Event Information Table (EIT) Extended Text Table (ETT) 3-hour time slot... Required for Terrestrial Broadcast (first four timeslots)

127 An LG Electronics Company Page 127 Version "Bubbling"  MPEG "rule": Any time the contents of a table changes, its version number must increment  Application: Each level in a table hierarchy carries the version number of a referenced, lower level table.  Thus: Any change in a table will “bubble” upwards  Consequence: Any change in a PSIP table will be reflected by a version change in the MGT! VCT VC 1 VC 2 EIT-0 Event 1 ETT MGT Table Ref 1 Table Ref 2 Table Ref 3 PID Z Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 EIT-0 Event 1 Event 2 ETT PID V ETT PID A Hour 0-3 RRT Table Ref 4 Table Ref 5 DCCSCT DCCT Table Re 7 Table Ref 6 Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

128 An LG Electronics Company Page 128 Master Guide Table (MGT)  MGT is the top-level “roadmap”  Identifies what PSIP tables are in transport stream  Gives PIDs so receiver can find them  Indicates when any table has been updated Table Reference Table Type (VCT, EIT-0, etc.) PID where table can be found Referenced Table Version Referenced Table Size Table Reference Table Type (VCT, EIT-0, etc.) PID where table can be found Referenced Table Version Referenced Table Size MGT (PID 0x1FFB) Table Ref 1 Table Ref 2 Table Ref 3 Table Ref 4 (PID 0x1FFB) Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

129 An LG Electronics Company Page 129 Virtual Channel Table (VCT) Virtual Channel Short Channel Name Major Channel Number Minor Channel Number Modulation Mode Frequency TS ID (of Virtual Channel) Program Number (in Stream) Extended Text Location Access Controlled ? Hidden ? Hide from Guide? Service Type (A/V/D) Source ID Service Location Descr other descriptors Virtual Channel Short Channel Name Major Channel Number Minor Channel Number Modulation Mode Frequency TS ID (of Virtual Channel) Program Number (in Stream) Extended Text Location Access Controlled ? Hidden ? Hide from Guide? Service Type (A/V/D) Source ID Service Location Descr other descriptors Video Stream Eng Audio Stream Fre Audio Stream (PID 0x1FFB) A view of what is in the VCT using an MPEG analyzer to look at the table ‘SectionArray’ Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

130 An LG Electronics Company Page 130 Event Information Tables (EITs) Event Event ID Start Time (GPS) Duration in Seconds Title (multiple languages) Extended Text Location Event Event ID Start Time (GPS) Duration in Seconds Title (multiple languages) Extended Text Location Descriptors Content Advisory Closed Captioning AC-3 Audio Broadcast Flag VCT VC 1 VC 2  Describe “ events ” (TV programs).  EIT-0 through EIT-127; each covers 3 hour period  EIT-0 thru EIT-3 required. A closer look at the EIT Section Array using an MPEG analyzer Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

131 An LG Electronics Company Page 131 Electronic Program Guide (EPG) The EPG gets filled in using data from EIT’s, VCT and STT Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

132 An LG Electronics Company Page 132 EIT Contents Handling the cross-over between EIT-0 and EIT-1 Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

133 An LG Electronics Company Page 133 At 3-Hour Boundary What was EIT-1, now becomes EIT-0 More data is plugged into the new EIT-3 (or whatever the last EIT is) Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

134 An LG Electronics Company Page 134 Extended Text Tables (ETTs)  ETT-0 thru ETT-127, plus a “ channel ETT ”  Text descriptions for channels and events  May use Huffman coding to reduce bandwidth  May be in multiple languages EIT-n Event 2 VCT VC 1 VC 2 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5 Event 1 Use the ETT to describe the story line, name the actors, when the program was made and other details about an event Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

135 An LG Electronics Company Page 135 Multilingual Text  Everywhere text is used  Program titles & descriptions  Exception: “short” channel name  Context-sensitive Huffman coding (English lang.)  Two tables, one optimized for titles, one for descriptions  Compression efficiency is approx. 2:1  Uses ISO 639 Language coding  May be included with the AC-3 descriptor  May have it’s own descriptor Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

136 An LG Electronics Company Page 136 PSIP Tables: The Big Picture ETT VCT VC 1 VC 2 EIT-0 Event 1 ETT MGT Table Ref 1 Table Ref 2 Table Ref 3 PID Z Event 2 Event 3 Event 4 EIT-1 Event 5 Event 6 Event 7 EIT-2 Event 7 Event 8 EIT-3 Event 8 Event 9 Event 10 Event 11 EIT-2 Event 5 Event 6 Event 7 Event 8 EIT-1 Event 3 Event 4 Event 5 EIT-0 Event 1 Event 2 EIT-3 Event 9 Event 10 Event 11 ETT PID WPID YPID XPID V ETT PID APID BPID CPID D Hour 0-3Hour 6-9Hour 9-12Hour 3-6 RRT Table Ref 4 Table Ref 5 DCCSCT DCCT Table Re 7 Table Ref 6 Data is constantly being moved. EIT-0 thru EIT-3 are required. More EITs can be used, but will take up more bandwidth

137 An LG Electronics Company Page 137 PSIP Servers Hide the Complexity Getting all the PSIP and EPG data into the right table is made easy with good software Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

138 An LG Electronics Company Page 138 ETT VCT EIT

139 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 139 PSIP In Cable How is PSIP in Cable different from PSIP in Terrestrial Broadcast?

140 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 140 PSIP In Cable Cable has several different scenerios to contend with  Factors that will influence how PSIP plays in a Cable or IPTV environment:  Multiple targeted service levels  Encrypted programs  Clear QAM  Digital Set-top Boxes  Tru2Way  Digital-To-Analog Set-top Boxes

141 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 141 PSIP In Cable FCC PSIP Rule for Cable  To conserve bandwidth, amount of PSIP data can be modified:  Only the first 4 EITs need to be carried  ETTs can be removed  Service Location descriptor (SLD) is not required in the CVCT  The FCC requires that PSIP information must be present in the Cable feed:  For channels containing PSIP on ingest  Channels carried in the clear (Clear QAM)  To enable a subscriber viewing experience, similar to Off-Air DTV For those subscribers without STB or Tru2Way Might include those with Digital TVs with QAM tuners Subscribers with older analog TVs needing a DTA

142 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 142 PSIP In Cable Cable PSIP vs. Broadcast PSIP TVCT (Terrestial Virtual Channel Table) Virtual Channel Name Channel Number—Major & Minor MPEG-2 Program Number Service Type Source_ID SLD required Broadcast Descriptors are in the EIT TVCT has PID values for all streams Service Location Descriptor CVCT (Cable Virtual Channel Table) Virtual Channel Name Channel Number (1 or 2 parts) MPEG-2 Program Number Service Type Source_ID No SLD required Cable Relies on PMT Descriptors are in the PMT SLD information is in the PMT

143 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 143 PSIP In Cable Descriptors: Cable vs. Broadcast DescriptorCable-PMT CVCTBroadcast-EITBroadcast-VCT AC-3 audio X X Caption Service X X Content Advisory X X ISO 639 LangaugeIf used X Ext Channel Name X X Service LocationOption X Time Shifted Serv X X

144 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 144 PSIP In Cable TSID: Cable vs. Broadcast The Transport Stream ID (TSID) uniquely identifies the Multiplex In Broadcast:  In cases where there are two stations on the same channel, TSID identifies the correct PSIP information for the selected station  The FCC assigns a unique TSID to every broadcast station In Cable:  TSID simply identifies a given multiplex  Can be a random or arbitrary number assigned by the MSO

145 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 145 PSIP In Cable Bottomline: PSIP in Cable is different than PSIP is different than PSIP in Broadcast

146 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 146 PSIP In Cable PSIP in Cable Applications Three scenerios: 1.Support for EPG with ClearQAM and DTAs 2.Support Lower Cost DTAs 3.Digital and HD delivery to Multiple Dwelling Units

147 An LG Electronics Company Page 147 PSIP In Cable HD Encoder SD Encoder MUXMUX Digital Television Broadcast Transmitter Limited Signal Processing Listing Service Listing Service PSIP TVCT, MGT, EIT, ETT PSIP TVCT, MGT, EIT, ETT Typical Digital Television Station Generating PSIP metadata Various configurations such as redundant and replicated outputs

148 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 148 PSIP in Cable Satellite Dish Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers CherryPicker, BMR, BNP QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Off-Airs Cable/HFC Network DACS type Set-top Control & Encryption Listing Service Listing Service Digital Set- top Box Digital-To- Analog Conv OR Typical major Cable TV network Ingested PSIP is groomed. Output is A/65 Compliant. PAT/PMT & CVCT Ingested PSIP is groomed. Output is A/65 Compliant. PAT/PMT & CVCT ‘EIT & ETT’ like information in a proprietary format Only Channel Number & Name, no Guide Info. Only Channel Number & Name, no Guide Info. Full EPG info on High End Digital Set-top Boxes. AND Tru2Way Digital TV Tru2Way Digital TV ClearQAM cable ready TV ClearQAM cable ready TV OR TVCT Proprietary Out-Of-Band Data Channel

149 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 149 PSIP In Cable CAUTION !!! In a Cable TV network, don’t multiplex off-air broadcast streams without Grooming ! The result would be:  Multiple different table versions for: VCT, MGT, STT, SLD  Duplicate PID values  Collisions of various pointers, such as source_id

150 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 150 PSIP in Cable Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers CherryPicker, BMR, BNP QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Off-Airs Cable/HFC Network DACS type Set-top Control & Encryption Listing Service Listing Service Digital Set- top Box Digital-To- Analog Conv OR Any Cable TV network Now Full EPG info on ClearQAM and DTAs Full EPG info on High End Digital Set-top Boxes. AND Tru2Way Digital TV Tru2Way Digital TV ClearQAM cable ready TV ClearQAM cable ready TV OR TVCT PSIP Metadata Generator Generator Add PSIP metadata: metadata:

151 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 151 PSIP In Cable Function of the PSIP generator: The PSIP metadata generator will:  Handle all PSI and PSIP information  Leaves multiplexers responsible for video and audio streams only  Extracts PSI and PSIP data packets from incoming streams  Decodes extracted tables  Information then used to: Create A/65 compliant streams on the output Merges with each transport per operator configuration Information included: Channel numbering, PIDs, EITs also o MGT and CVCT o Movement of descriptor information from EIT to PMT

152 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 152 PSIP in Cable Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers CherryPicker, BMR, BNP QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Digital to Analog Mod Digital to Analog Mod Off-Airs Cable/HFC Network Listing Service Listing Service Digital-To- Analog Conv Now Full EPG info on ClearQAM TVs and DTAs ClearQAM cable ready TV ClearQAM cable ready TV AND/OR TVCT SI Metadata Generator Generator Now Add PSIP (A/65) metadata: Encryption, DACS & Set-tops: Cost Prohibitive PACE or Evolution type lower cost DTA PACE or Evolution type lower cost DTA PSIP Metadata Generator Generator Add ‘Lower Cost DTAs’: Use ‘SI’ data for PSIP:

153 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 153 PSIP In Cable Why is ‘SI’ used for these DTAs ?  Lower cost due to being widely used internationally  These DTAs were originally developed for the DVB standard Why is a ‘PSIP’ generator needed for ClearQAM?  Digital TVs used in the USA are built to the ATSC-A/65 standard  Cannot decode MPEG or SI metadata

154 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 154 PSIP in Cable Encoders Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers Satellite Receivers CherryPicker, BMR, BNP QAM Modulator QAM Modulator Off-Airs Listing Service Listing Service Digital Channels Delivered to an MDU: Full EPG info on ClearQAM TVs TVCT PSIP Metadata Generator Generator Fiber Optic Trans mitter ClearQAM TV Hotel, Resort or College Dormitory Dedicated Fiber

155 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 155 PSIP In Cable Dedicated service to MDUs Allows for:  Creation of a custom channel line-up  Special purpose channels included  All digital video service

156 An LG Electronics Company Page 156 Further Information  ATSC A/65B – PSIP standard   ATSC A/69 – PSIP Implementation Guidelines   Additional PSIP information   "Channel Branding and Navigation for DTV : Understanding PSIP", NAB Science & Technology Dept  "PSIP: Program & System Information Protocol", Mark Eyer  “Video Over IP” by Wes Simpson; SCTE Bookstore Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc.

157 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Page 157 PSIP In Cable GuideBuilder ® GuideBuilder ® Industry leading A/65 standard PSIP generator for fixed based and mobile digital television service. GuideBuilder -SI ® GuideBuilder -SI ® Industry leading ETR DVB standard PSIP generator for fixed based digital television service. StreamScope ® StreamScope ® Analysis and stream monitoring tools for MPEG digital video transport.

158 An LG Electronics Company Copyright © 2010 Triveni Digital, Inc. Thanks Digital TV & MPEG-2 Technology MPEG 101 and PSIP for Cable


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