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Impacting Each Student within All Students

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1 Impacting Each Student within All Students
Getting Results: Impacting Each Student within All Students Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process Going Deeper with TBTs and the Ohio 5-Step Process This year’s professional development for SPDG cohort districts will be focused on tbts and the use of the 5 step process to improve achievement for all students, and specifically for students who struggle. SPDG Professional Development

2 Our Targets For Today Linking Assessment to Instruction
Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning Overview of content chunks for Step 3 Differentiation and Multiple Intelligences

3 TBT Step 3: Planning for High Quality Instruction
School and Classroom Practice MUST CHANGE

4 Training Outcomes: TBT Protocol Step 3
Evaluate the difference between LRE compliance and achievement for all students Understand the link between formative assessment and planning for instruction Analyze how Multiple Intelligences, Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning Support ALL students.

5 The Ohio 5-Step Process: A Cycle of Inquiry
Collect and chart data Step 2 Analyze student work specific to the data Step 3 Establish shared expectations for implementing specific effective changes in the classroom Step 4 Implement changes consistently across all classrooms Step 5 Collect, chart and analyze post data The Ohio 5-Step Process: A Cycle of Inquiry In the previous chunk of content, we talked about how summative and formative assessment questions provide us with the information we need to differentiate our lesson plans to meet the needs of all of our students. Now, we are going to look at how we plan instruction to meet the needs of ALL students within our core curriculum. Today’s content is about the core! We are NOT talking about adding additional intervention/enrichment time outside of the classroom.

6 Prove It Activity: HOW We Teach
In pairs, choose one of the quotes below and “prove” it wrong by providing evidence of specific examples you have seen recently in the classroom. Give each person 30 seconds to share with partner. All available evidence suggests that classroom practice has changed little in the past 100 years. James Stigler and James Hiebert 2009 Prove It Activity: In pairs, choose one of the quotes and “prove” it wrong by providing enough opposite evidence of specific examples from your own teaching from just this current week. Think about your lesson plans for the week. Give each person 30 seconds to share with their partner. There is a lot of sitting and listening and not a lot of thinking. Robert Pianta 2008 (on his observation of more than 1,000 classrooms)

7 Current Challenges increased diversity in classrooms
high expectations for all students high stakes testing accountability for all students Today’s classrooms are highly complex and pose difficult hurdles for teachers. As a result of IDEA ’97, many students who used to be excluded from general education curriculum are expected to progress in the general education classroom and curriculum. Teachers now need to be successful with a much more diverse group of students including English Language Learners, students from other cultures, and students with diverse disabilities. All students are commonly in the same schools, same classrooms, and same curriculum. Schools, teachers and students are accountable for real progress and demonstrateable learning outcomes in the regular education curriculum. We will talk about several ways teachers can address these challenges by using differentiation strategies, Multiple Intelligences and Universal Design for Learning. We will also look at service delivery models and how collaboration between gen ed and spec ed can support all learners.

8 Think About Your Classroom
How many students have: Visual issues Attention difficulties Auditory issues Reading disabilities Multiple Intelligences, Differentiated Instruction all combine in the Framework of Universal Design for Learning will support not only the students you have in the above categories, but ALL of your students.

9 Greater Access to Curriculum and Instruction
LEAs have increased the number of students who spend 80% or more of their school day in regular classrooms. Ohio now is near the national average for this placement. Programs are when we send kids to the adults; Services are when the adults come to the kids. Frattura (2011 SST3 Training) Graph from Tom Lather, Interim Director OEC from Special Education Leadership Conference (2011)

10 Settings Have Changed IEP teams continue to include more children in regular classrooms, while avoiding separate placements. We are sending more kids to classrooms for their instruction. BUT, (next slide)

11 Performance Has Improved…. But the Gap Hasn’t Closed
The gap still exists with their achievement levels.

12 I contend that to integrate requires the teacher to plan lessons that actually require the student with special needs to actively participate in the learning. Inclusion, on the other hand, simply requires the students be placed physically in a regular classroom without any real expectation that the student will be participating intellectually in what the rest of the class is learning. From: Pg. 162 The Teacher as Assessment Leader (in references) REFLECTION ACTIVITY: Is this true in your experience? Are 90% of your classrooms the polar opposite of the statement!? Talk at your table. Ainsley B. Rose 2009

13 Students with Disabilities
Achievement – not merely compliance Stan Heffner’s slide from Special Education Leadership Conference(2011). Relate this slide to LRE % being the compliance.

14 What planning must occur at Step 3, so that our core instruction addresses the diverse needs of ALL students in our classrooms? Step 3 Establish shared expectations for implementing specific effective changes in the classroom

15 FOCUS ON THE CORE 2 3 4 5 1 5 Step TBT Process
Extended oval to include entire cone as the core Step 3 Planning IS Core Instructional Planning FIRST to meet the needs of all of your learners. Again, illustrate that we are focusing on improving the core which will reduce the number of students that will need intervention outside of the classroom!

16 Assessment and instruction are often conceived as curiously separate in both time and purpose. The key to high-quality formative assessment is to intertwine the two. Graue 1993

17 Analyze student work specific to the data
If we have deconstructed our embedded learning targets, and our assessments provide us formative feedback, then how do we link instruction to the results of our assessments, KNOWING there is learner diversity in every classroom? Remember in Steps 1 and 2 of the training, we deconstructed, analyzed formative assessments, reviewed case studies earlier today and are now ready to talk more about bridging to instruction Step 1 Collect and chart data Step 2 Analyze student work specific to the data Step 3 Establish shared expectations for implementing specific effective changes in the classroom

18 Formative Assessment Instruction
Case Study - Modified Jigsaw Number the tables 1,2,3 Table will read their assigned case study and answer the preview questions (5 minutes) Form triads of a 1s, 2s and 3s Summarize your case study and share out table responses (1 minute each) HAND-OUTS: Case Studies. Should copy and staple all case studies into one packet for each participant. Follow the directions on the slide for he jigsaw activity. These case studies link the work we did previously in formative assessment to how that changes instruction. This is a link from the first chunk of content to Step 3. Follow directions on slide

19 The Bridge from Content to Learner
Differentiated Instruction Multiple Intelligences

20 Does Differentiated Instruction Look Like This?!
Fun clip to show how we can “talk” it, but not do or really “know” it. 3:20 Title is: Differentiated - Instruction-Robots This clip emphasizes the need for common language and expectations when talking about instruction.

21 Differentiated Instruction Features
Formative Assessment Features Responsive to individual needs Teaching is planned to ensure maximum growth Learning is guided Instruction is purposefully planned Each student is treated fairly Teaching is designed to meet individual needs and learning style Content is modified Instruction is student focused Data are gathered to identify student needs Areas of requisite growth are clearly identified Student understanding is monitored Instruction is based in students’ assessed readiness and starting points in order to learn Each student gets what assessment data indicate he/she needs to progress Needs and learning style are measured through ongoing formative assessment, and instruction is customized accordingly Scaffolding, tiered activities, and grouping are based on assessment needs Different resources and measures are used Peer and self-assessment inform learning Handout Shows how differentiation and formative assessment converge to support each other. What Teachers Really Need to Know about Formative Assessment pg. 147

22 Multiple Intelligences and Formative Assessment
Application Sample Formative Strategies Verbal-Linguistic (word smart) Student writes it down and tells others Minute Paper Journaling Spatial (picture smart) Chart it: format ideas related to a specific term Empty Outlines Graphic Organizers Bodily-Kinesthetic (body smart) Demonstrate it Model the steps Line-Up Logical-Mathematical (number/reasoning smart) Count or measure Color-coding Clusters Musical (music smart) Put it to a beat Create a rhythm haiku Interpersonal (people smart) Group work Muddiest Point Bump in the Road Intrapersonal (self smart) Self-assessment Handout - What Teachers Really Need to Know about Formative Assessment pg. 144 Using the results of assessments aligned to Multiple Intelligences can not only help in determining future assessments but also instruction can be adjusted to correspond to specific intelligences which will facilitate student learning.

23 Let’s Use What We Know… In triads, review the following charts together: Differentiated Instruction Features vs. Formative Assessment Features Multiple Intelligences and Formative Assessment Discussion points: How can formative assessments be used to develop differentiated instruction? How can multiple intelligences be considered in formative assessments? How should differentiated instruction reflect and support students’ multiple intelligences in any given classroom?

24 A Differentiated Classroom Video Clip
“ (Differentiated Instruction) provides different avenues to acquiring content, to processing or making sense of ideas, and to developing products so that each student can learn effectively.” (Tomlinson, 2001 p.1) Watch the video clip on Differentiated Instruction. Title is: Differentiation Instruction Time = 02:39 Debrief whole group: - Based on your discussion previous to viewing the video, how were students’ different learning needs being met in this classroom?

25 A Differentiated Classroom Video Clip

26 The Bridge from Content to Learner
Differentiated Instruction Universal Design for Learning

27 Universal Design for Learning
If we first “universally design” our lesson plans to meet the needs of more learners, there will be fewer “struggling” learners in need of further accommodations. OCALI presentation Learning environments and products must be designed from the start for maximum usability. The word "universal" is sometimes misunderstood to suggest that there is a single solution that works for everyone. But the essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences. UDL principles draw on brain and media research to help educators reach and teach all students by setting appropriate learning goals, choosing and developing effective methods and materials, and developing accurate and fair ways to assess students' progress. With UDL, each student is addressed as an individual with unique needs, interests, and abilities.

28 UDL: The "Intersection of Initiatives"
Where integrated units, multi-sensory teaching, multiple intelligences, differentiated instruction, technology enhanced learning, and performance-based formative assessments come together.

29 Strategic Networks Affective Networks
Recognition Networks The "what" of learning Strategic Networks The "how" of learning Affective Networks The "why" of learning How we gather facts and categorize what we see, hear, and read. Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks. Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and express our ideas. Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasks. How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. These are affective dimensions. HANDOUT THE NEURO RESEARCH THAT UDL IS BASED ON. Individuals bring a huge variety of skills, needs, and interests to learning. Neuroscience reveals that these differences are as varied and unique as our DNA or fingerprints. Three primary brain networks come into play: Considering characteristics across the brain networks that each individual brings to a learning task helps us understand learners’ strengths and interests as well as their challenges. Thinking about learners in light of the three brain networks helps us realize that students do not inherently fall into broad categories such as "disabled" or "bright," but instead possess a range of abilities in many domains that fall along a very large number of continua. ACTIVITY: Working in your groups, discuss the ways you would and would not learn best. Consider the three brain networks - recognition, strategic, and affective - during your discussion. Remember that recognition networks enable us to recognize patterns – the what of learning; strategic networks allow us to develop and execute plans – the how of learning; and affective networks make it possible for us to engage with tasks and the world around us – the why of learning. Please select a note taker, time keeper, and presenter. Then re-group in approximately 10 minutes to share findings.

30 Supporting Recognition Learning
Alternative formats for presenting new information Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Support background context Different instructional approaches for teaching information, the “what” of learning. In order to support all learners, it is important to provide multiple examples and non-examples of the concepts being taught. In teaching new concepts, learners benefit from pointing out the critical features of the new idea, pattern, or concept. For example,if the teacher wants students to be able to identify characteristics of birds, the teacher should explicitly draw the students’ attention to distinguishing features of birds, i.e. wings, beaks, feathers. Presenting new information in many formats and media increases options for all learners and consequently increases chances of success for all learners.

31 Supporting Strategic Learning
Provide alternative means for action and expression Provide flexible models of skilled performance Provide opportunities for practice with support Provide ongoing relevant feedback Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill different instructional approaches for teaching skills and strategies, the “how” of learning. Visualize a first grade class as children are learning to read. The teacher presents many models of expert reading: reading aloud, listening to tapes, choral reading, reading with another peer, listening to a computer read, etc.

32 Supporting Affective Learning
Provide alternative means for engagement: −Offer choices of content and tools −Offer adjustable levels of challenge −Offer choices of rewards −Offer choices of learning context Divide the audience into small groups and assign each group one teaching method from slide. Allow ten minutes for the groups to brainstorm different ways for students to achieve the instructional goals, while supporting affective learning. After ten minutes, ask each group to share their ideas with the audience. Tip: Presenter takes notes on a computer connected to a projector so that information can be saved and printed for the audience.

33 UDL Addresses These Facts…
Students with disabilities fall along multiple continua Typical classes are highly diverse Teacher adjustments benefit all learners Curriculum needs fixing, not the student Materials must be flexible and diverse General education and intervention specialists plan instruction collaboratively (TBT 5-Step Process: Step 3) Assumptions: Students with disabilities fall along multiple continua of learning differences, rather than in separate categories of disabilities or abilities Typical classes are highly diverse. Teacher adjustments benefit all learners and not just those with disabilities. Curriculum needs fixing, not the students (curriculum materials should be varied and diverse including digital and online resources, rather than centering on a single textbook). Curriculum materials must be flexible, varied, and diverse (instead of remediating students so that they can learn from a set curriculum, curriculum should be made flexible to accommodate learner differences). General education and special education teachers plan curriculum (curriculum planning capitalizes on the collective expertise of the general and special educations teachers).

34 From Sasheen Phillips presentation at Special Education Leadership Conference Sept 2011
Share how this is from ODE’s Office of Curriculum. UDL is a general ed initiative in Ohio/ODE through the Office of Curr and Assessment. It’s principles, however, are part of IDEA in respect to developing and administering statewide assessments.

35 Meeting the Needs of ALL Learners
HANDOUT: UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING GUIDELINES UDL is in federal law/Reauthorization, but must be driven through general ed. Adds an extra level of instruction The three principles of UDL are: Representation Action and Expression Engagement

36 UDL Video Jigsaw Activity
Count off at each table: 1 – Representation 2 – Action and Expression 3 – Engagement Away from your table, join with others of your “expertise” number in groups of up to 4 Referring to the UDL Guidelines chart, discuss key components of your assigned Learning Guidelines in preparing to watch video clip HANDOUT: UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING GUIDELINES

37 UDL Video Jigsaw Activity
Complete template for your “expertise” area with evidence from video clip. Share what you observed in the video with your table. HANDOUT: UDL JIGSAW VIDEO TEMPLATE Video Clip is titled: How_to_teach_math_as_a_social_activity Total Time: 08:54

38 UDL Video Jigsaw Activity

39 Co-Teaching Approaches
One Teach, One Observe – Co-teachers decide in advance what types of specific observational information to gather during instruction and can agree on a system for gathering the data. Afterward, the teachers should analyze the information together. The teachers should take turns teaching and gathering data, rather than assuming that the special educator is the only person who should observe. Station Teaching – Co-teachers divide content and students. Each teacher then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third "station" could give students an opportunity to work independently. As co-teachers become comfortable with their partnership, they may add groups or otherwise create variations of this model. Parallel Teaching – Co-teachers are both teaching the same information, but they do so to a divided class group. Parallel also may be used to vary learning experiences, for example, by providing manipulatives to one group but not the other or by having the groups read about the same topic but at different levels of difficulty. Alternative Teaching – one teacher takes responsibility for the large group while the other works with a smaller group. These smaller groups could be used for remediation, pre-teaching, to help students who have been absent catch up on key instruction, assessment, and so on. Teaming – both teachers share delivery of the same instruction to a whole student group. Some teachers refer to this as having “one brain in two bodies.” Others call it “tag team teaching.” Most co-teachers consider this approach the most complex but satisfying way to co-teach, but it is the approach that is most dependent on teachers’ styles. One Teach, One Assist -one teacher keeps primary responsibility for teaching while the other professional circulated through the room providing unobtrusive assistance to students as needed. This should be the least often employed co-teaching approach. HANDOUT: Co-Teaching Approaches List So, part of planning together is determining which approach to collaborative teaching will best support the content and the lessons each day. An integral part of Step 3 is the instructional planning that happens between the general education teachers and the intervention specialist. One part of your planning needs to be what service delivery model will be used to support instruction for lessons. One example is Marilyn Friend’s co-teaching approaches. We have to remember that co-teaching in and of itself is not the answer for increasing achievement. It is only one part of our instructional decision making. The actual delivery of instruction should be supported through the use co-teaching. ACTIVITY: Reflect on your co-teaching/collaborative teaching experience. Rank them in order of which approach is used most often to least based on your experience. Share with an elbow partner.

40 Which Is Over-used? Why? One Teach, One Observe Station Teaching
Parallel Teaching Alternative Teaching Teaming One Teaching, One Assisting Ask them to identify “to themselves” which one they think is over-used. On your mouse click it will change color. Answer -- One Teaching, One Assisting: This approach has value but is over-used, possibly because it makes the fewest demands for change on the part of the adults. It seems the easiest to implement and individual personalities of the collaborative teachers are “minimized”. The concern is that used too much, this begins to look like one of the teachers is the “aide” in the classroom vs. both being instructional specialists.

41 Which Can Be the Most Difficult?
One Teach, One Observe Station Teaching Parallel Teaching Alternative Teaching Teaming One Teaching, One Assisting Ask them to self reflect on this question. On the mouse click the text will change color. ANSWER: TEAMING -- Instruction in this approach becomes a conversation vs. turn-taking. This can be the most difficult because it relies on both teachers being very comfortable with each other’s teaching styles. Each approach has potential strengths and drawbacks. What you choose depends on the needs of the students based on the content of the lesson. Remember this is about actively engaging ALL students in learning.

42 Understanding… Specialized Instruction
Occurs above and beyond Core Instruction If on a student’s IEP, all team members must be fully versed in and utilize as part of instructional planning During TBT Step 3, Intervention Specialist guides team members And finally – it is critical to truly understand ‘SPECIALIZED” instruction…

43 From Melody Musgrove, Director of Office of Special Education Programs, USDOE, Ohio Special Education Leadership Conference “Special Ed was never designed to be a place. It was meant to be specially designed instruction.” Spoke at 2011 Special Education Leadership Conference

44 Specially Designed Instruction Defined:
“Adapting as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child, the content, methodology or delivery of instruction to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability and to ensure access of the child to the general education curriculum so the child can meet the educational standards that apply to all children within the jurisdiction of the school district.” From OSEP (Office of Special Education Pograms), USDOE From OSEP (Office of Special Education Programs), USDOE Specialized instruction component #7 on their IEP. Intervention Specialists must share this information with gen ed teachers and reinforce what this looks like as the plan their lessons together.

45 Teacher Based Teams: Impacting Each Student within All Students
through use of effective instructional practices ! Universal Design for Learning provides a framework for individualizing learning in a standards-based environment through flexible pedagogy and tools. It challenges teachers to incorporate flexibility into instructional methods and materials as a way to accommodate every student in the classroom.

46 Carousel Reflection What should be considered when connecting instruction to formative assessment? What are the key ideas of Universal Design for Learning? What are the key ideas of Differentiated Instruction? What are the most significant barriers to learner success? What are the most significant factors for ensuring student success? ACTIVITY: Post chart paper around the room. One chart paper for each question. Each table will need a colored marker and one scribe. Assign table groups to each poster. (If your group is large, do multiple sets of the questions so you can divide groups. They will have 1 minute at each poster to record their learnings/applications of the content. Rotate them to the next poster, and so on. They will finish at their original chart to see the comments written. Give them a chance to wander to the any others that they want to see.

47 Our Targets From Today Linking Assessment to Instruction
Differentiation and Universal Design for Learning Overview of content chunks within Steps 1 and 2 Differentiation and Multiple Intelligences

48 WHEW!! THANK YOU for your hard work! THANK YOU!


50 Resources ttp://
Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning, David H. Rose & Anne Meyer. ASCD, 2002

51 This document/product/software was supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, (Award  #Q27A090111A, CFDA A, awarded to the Ohio Department of Education).  The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the policy or position of the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, and no official endorsement by the Department should be inferred.

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