2Push Factors ? What causes people to leave? What forces people to move?Think about- What pushed you out of bed today?
3Pull Factors What leads people to a certain location? What attracts people to relocate to a specific place?What pulled you to U.S. History today?
4Push Factors to the West OvercrowdingNeed for jobEthnic and religious repressionRefuge for Outlaws
5Pull Factors Land (cheap and plentiful) Riches (gold, silver, oil) Freedom of religious beliefsFamily connectionJobs and new opportunityadventure
6What are some modern day examples of push/pull factors?
7Homestead ActFederal land policy and the completion of the transcontinental railroad led to the rapid settlement of American westPassed in 1862 to encourage settlement of the Plains areaGave 160 acres of land to settlers if they improved the land and live on it
8Homestead Act Must farm the land for 5 years Paid $10 for the land Land speculators- took advantage of the situationThey used the land for profitThey took advantage of the settlers
9OklahomaIn 1889, a major governmental land giveaway in what is now Oklahoma attracted thousands- BoomersIn less than a day, 2 million acres were claimed by settlersSome took possession before the government had officially declared it open – thus Oklahoma became known as the “Sooner State”
1155 Indian nations had been forced into Indian Territory, which contained the largest unsettled farmland in the U.S. (about 2 million unassigned acres). During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the land. On the morning of April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territory’s borders. At the stroke of noon, bugles blew, pistols fired, and the eager hordes surged forward, racing to stake a claim.
12By sundown, these settlers, called boomers, had staked claims on almost 2 million acres. Many Boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by Sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims. Under pressure from settlers, Congress created the Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.
13Exodusters head WestAfrican Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas were called ExodustersMany exodusters took advantage of land dealsNamed after the book of Exodus in which Jews fled from Egypt
14Mormons Founded by Joseph Smith Faced persecution based on belief of PolygamyPolygamy- more than one wifeSmith was killed in IllinoisBrigham Young lead them on migration west to Great Salt Lake
15The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad by the Union and Pacific Railroad companies marked a major accomplishment in U.S. transportation. For the first time in American history, East and West coasts were linked by the railroad, making transportation of people and goods from East to West much easier and faster.In their race to build railroads, the Central and Union Pacific Railroad Companies would recruit immigrants, most notably the Chinese, to work on the rails.
16Transcontinental Railroad Pacific Railway Act- passed in 1862 by LincolnIt promoted the construction of a railroad across the country.
17Transcontinental Railroad Government grants land to railroadsCentral Pacific- build east using Chinese laborUnion Pacific- build west using Irish laborTwo lines meet at Promontory Point, UtahAccidents, disease disable and killed thousands every year
18The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868 The transcontinental railroad was completed in The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
19The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad by the Union and Pacific Railroad companies marked a major accomplishment in U.S. transportation. For the first time in American history, East and West coasts were linked by the railroad, making transportation of people and goods from East to West much easier and faster.In their race to build railroads, the Central and Union Pacific Railroad Companies would recruit immigrants, most notably the Chinese, to work on the rails.
21Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad at Promontory Point, Utah, in 1869
22Morrill Land Grant ActGave federal land to the states to organize agricultural collegesLed to farming innovationsColleges built Penn St, Texas A&M, NC State and NC A&T
23New Farming Technology Farming in the region was very hard at first.Technology made it easier.John Deere- invented the steel plow-Cyrus McCormick- invented the mechanical reaperSteel Windmill- pumped underground water to the surface
24Life of the Farm Most settlers built their homes from the land itself Pioneers often dug their homes out of the sides of ravines or hills (Dugouts)Those in the flat plains made freestanding homes made of turf (Soddies)
25Sod Houses Blocks of prairie turfs Warm in winter Cool in summer Small poorly litHaven for snakes and insects
27Hardships on the Plains The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and banditsIsolation miles from other settlersDespite hardships, the number of people living west of the Mississippi grew from 1% of the nation’s population in 1850 to almost 30% in 1900
28Open Range Great Plains- Kansas to Texas No boundaries to man or cattleOpen area free for cattle and men to roam.Low population
29Cattle Kingdom Greater demand for beef in urban areas Ranching becomes a profitable businessChisholm Trail-major cattle drive trailAbilene- major cattle town
30Cowboys Learned to be Cowboys from the Mexicans 1/5th of the Cowboys were black or HispanicLong hard day, very dangerous and lonely work
31Long Drive Round-up cattle for Long drive Longhorn- could survive the long journeyJourney taking the cattle to the marketLasts about 3 months
35Cowboys worked hours a day on a ranch and even more on the Trail, alert at all times for any dangers to the herd. A cowboy’s season might begin with the spring roundup (branding), followed by the long drive. The cowboy life was dangerous and lonely, which is why many celebrated in the cow towns (like Abilene) upon arrival.
36“We went back to look for him, and we found him…horse and man mashed into the ground as flat as a pancake….We tried to think that lightning hit him, and that was what we wrote his folks…but we couldn’t believe it ourselves. I’m afraid it wasn’t the lightning. I’m afraid.. They both went down before the stampede.”~Teddy Abbott, cowboy
37The Old Chisholm TrailCome along boys and listen to my tale, I'll tell you of my troubles on the old Chisholm trail.Come a ti yi yippee, come a ti yi yea, Come a ti yi yippee, come a ti yi yea.Oh, a ten-dollar hoss and a forty-dollar saddle, And I'm goin' to punchin' Texas cattle.I wake in the mornin' afore daylight, And afore I sleep the moon shines bright.It's cloudy in the west, a-lookin' like rain, And my durned old slicker's in the wagon again.No chaps, no slicker, and it's pourin' down rain, And I swear, by gosh, I'll never night-herd again.Feet in the stirrups and seat in the saddle, I hung and rattled with them long-horn cattle.The wind commenced to blow, and the rain began to fall, Hit looked, by grab, like we was goin' to lose 'em all.I don't give a darn if they never do stop; I'll ride as long as an eight-day clock.We rounded 'em up and put 'em on the cars, And that was the last of the old Two Bars.It's bacon and beans most every day, I'd as soon be a-eatin' prairie hay.I went to the boss to draw my roll, He had it figgered out I was nine dollars in the hole.Goin' back to town to draw my money, Goin' back home to see my honey.With my knees in the saddle and my seat in the sky, I'll quit punchin' cows in the sweet by and by.
38Home On The RangeOh, give me a home where the buffalo roam Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day How often at night where the heavens are bright With the light of the glittering stars Have I stood there amazed and asked as I gazed If their glory exceeds that of ours Then give me a land where the bright diamond sand Flows leisurely down to the stream Where the graceful white swan goes gliding along Like a maid in a heavenly dream Oh I would not exchange my old home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where the seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day
39End of the Open RangeAlmost as soon as ranching became big business, the cattle frontier met its endToo many cattle and overgrazing, disease and drought caused the declineBarbed wire fences ended the open rangeInvented by Joseph Glidden
40Mining Gold Rushes- people moved west quickly Sutter’s Mill, Black Hills of the Dakota TerritoryComstock Lode- Nevada largest discovery of precious metals in U.S. history
41Mining Life Large mix of people Many opportunities for everyone Saloons gamblingViolent towns with no policeHard luckMade little or no money had to stay west
42Boom/Ghost TownsBoomtowns built quickly accommodate miners and they were abandoned just as quickly
43Dime novels that told western tales “Wild West”Legend of adventureWild Bill HickokCalamity JaneWyatt EarpJesse JamesBilly the KidAnnie OakleyDime novels that told western talesRomanticized the WestOnly lasted 30 yearsWild Bill HickokCalamity JaneJesse JamesWyatt EarpBilly the Kid
44~Frederick Jackson Turner Decline of FarmingRise of Industry- big businesses back east provided jobsUrbanization- growth of cities pull many back East to work in factoriesEnd of the FrontierFrederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier ThesisClaimed that the frontier captured American spirit and made America uniqueNow…the frontier has gone and with its going has closed the first period of American history.”~Frederick Jackson Turner
45Decline of Farming Great debts- farm machinery expensive= debt Drought and low market prices= debtRailroad charges- charging western farmers more because there is no competition“No other system of taxation has borne as heavily on the people as those extortions and inequalities of railroad charges.”~Henry Demarest Lloyd, 1881Atlantic Monthly
47Plains IndiansNomadic lifestyle-move from place to place following food supplyWarfare among tribesCommunal livingCommon use of tribal landDid not believe in individual ownership of the land
48The Horse and The Buffalo The introduction of horses by the Spanish (1598) and later guns, meant natives were able to travel and huntWhile the horse provided speed and mobility, it was the buffalo that provided for basic needsBuffalo was the key to survivalThey used every part of the buffalo for food, clothing, shelter and weapons
49The buffalo provided the Plains Indians with more than just a high-protein food source: The skull of the buffalo was considered sacred and was used in many Native American rituals.The horns were carved into bowls and spoons.The bones of the buffalo were made into hide scrappers, tool handles, sled runners, and hoe blades. The hoofs were ground up and used as glue.The hide was by far the most precious part of the buffalo. Native American clothing, tepees, and even arrow shields were made from buffalo hide.
50FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Small extended families were the normMen were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare itTribes were very spiritual and land was communalOSAGE TRIBE
54Settlers Push Westward The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about land ownershipConcluding that the plains were “unsettled, “ thousands advanced to claim landGold being discovered in Colorado only intensified the rush for land
55The Government Restricts Natives As more and more settlers headed west, the U.S. government increasingly protected their interestsRailroad Companies also influenced government decisionsRailroads greatly impacted Native American lives
56Conflict1834 – Government set aside all of the Great Plains as “Indian lands”1850s- Government shifts policy, giving natives much smaller landsGovernment took away hunting grounds and began to massacre the buffalo
57Broken Treaties Treaties were broken Indians forced onto reservations Government payments and supplies were not delivered as promisedContinued to slaughter the buffalo
58Buffalo herds often ripped up train track and caused a problem for the railroads
59Many American hunters removed the buffalo hides in order to sell them, but left hundreds of thousands of carcasses to rot on the plains.This type!
60Tanning Tanneries paid hunters $1 to $3 for hides Hides were sent east to be used as belts on industrial machinesHunters often left carcasses and other potential uses of the buffalo were wasted
61“Kill every buffalo you can. Every buffalo dead is an Indian gone “Kill every buffalo you can. Every buffalo dead is an Indian gone.” ~A United States Army Officer
62US INDIAN POLICYTake away the food source from the Native American and they will be forced to submit and go to the reservations.
64Clash BeginsIndian uprisings due to broken promises and movement of white settlers on the Great PlainsTreaties were often negotiated by unauthorized tribal leaders which made them easy to break
65Dakota Wars 1862Live near Minnesota relations with whites good at first1862 insects wiped out crops and government help never came, they were starvingChief Little Crow led warriors on rampage killing hundreds of whitesArmy put rebellion down first real outbreak of violence on the Great Plains
66Sand Creek Massacre1864 Colonel John Chivington leads a massacre of the Cheyenne tribeSurprise attack at dawn kills 400 natives, mostly women and childrenMassacre was down under a white flag truce by Chief Battle Kettle
67Colonel John Chivington “Kill and scalp all, big and little!” Sand Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
68Red Cloud WarGold is discovered in Montana in 1863 and miners began moving into the areaPassed through Sioux country to get there and Sioux began to attack themMilitary brought in to defeat the Lakota, led by Red Cloud and his warriors (one of whom was Crazy Horse)Fetterman and 80 soldiers massacred
69Red Cloud WarAfter two years of fighting, U.S. conceded victory to the Sioux- noteworthy for 2 reasons:Only WAR ever won by Indians against U.S.Sioux were guaranteed all of Western S.D. in treaty, including Black Hills; also free to roam in unpopulated areas
70Battle of Little Bighorn Gold is found in the Black Hills of the DakotasSioux try to defend territory promised to them in the Treaty of Fort LaramieArmy sends George Armstrong Custer to move Sioux off the land
71Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Sioux) and Crazy Horse (Ogalala Sioux) were two chiefs who refused to sign the treaty.All Indians ordered back onto reservation"One does not sell the earth upon which the people walk" Crazy Horse
72Little Big Horn River, Montana - 1876 George Armstrong Custer was sent to force the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho back to their reservations (part of a larger force).He was in command of the 7th Calvary.June 26, 1876
73Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 1876 Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse lead a large force of 2500 Natives near Little Bighorn River in MontanaCuster was heavily outnumberedHe and 220 of his men were massacredThis was called “Custer’s Last Stand”
74Battle of Little Bighorn Last Major Native American victoryAmericans and the government were outragedSioux were crushed in the following yearsBest and worst thing to happen to the Native Americans
77-Led by Chief Joseph, they refused to go to reservation Indian Wars-Nez Perce Indians, 1877-Led by Chief Joseph, they refused to go to reservationFled into Canada with the Army chasing them down-chased by the Army for over 1000 miles until captured-”I will fight no more forever”“Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more against the white man.”~Chief Joseph
78Apache WarsApaches led by Mangas Colorados & Cochise, were the last Indian resistance to whitesMangas killed during Civil WarCochise died in 1874Successor, Geronimo -fought whites for the next 10 years
79GenocideGenocide The planned destruction and elimination of a particular ethnic or religious groupAmericans viewed Native Americans and Indians as a hindrance to their ambitionsThe government supported policies that would remove Indians from the path of white settlementWanted to Americanize IndiansWanted to end nomadic lifestyle of Indians
80ConflictTribes of the Great Plains clashed with one another over hunting rights due to scarcity of the buffaloTribes were forced to hunt further from home & often entered the territory of rival tribesBeing further from home made settlement vulnerable to raids
81Starvation Lack of buffalo forced Indians to rely on agriculture If weather caused crops to fail, Indians had no food to sustain themselves
82Loss of Traditional Culture Indians would have to adapt to life without the buffalo1850: 13 million buffalo1880s: less than a thousand buffalo
83THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffaloTourist and fur traders shot buffalo for sport1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains1890: less than 1000 remainedSHIRTLESS HUNTER WITH HIS KILL
85Century of Dishonor A book written by Helen Hunt Jackson Book talked about the horribly treatment and the broken promises of the federal government towards the Native AmericansBook treat attention to the mistreatment
86~Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonoror “The history of the Government connections with the Indians is a shameful record of broken treaties and unfulfilled promises.”“There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians one which has not suffered cruelly at the hands either of the Government or of white settlers”“It makes little difference…where one opens the record of the history of the Indians; every page and every year has its dark stains.”~Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonoror
87Dawes Act The Dawes Act of 1887 attempted to assimilate natives Give up their Native lives and culture for the White cultureThe Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American life160 acres was given to each family to farmBy 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been taken
88Dawes Act of 1887 U.S. INDIAN POLICY Quicker Americanization Assimilate, mainstreamed and absorbed into US societyAdopt Christianity and White educationIndividual land ownershipAbandon tribe, culture and become farmersMale claimed 160 acres of landChildren would be sent to Indian schoolsFarm land for 25 years- then they owned it.1924 gain citizenship and right to voteFailed policyIndian resistance and corruption
89Assimilation Assimilation- education of Indians to be more like whites Stripped of their land, culture, language, and religionCarlisle Indian School- sent boys East to be educated like whitesPlan failed and caused alcohol abuseEnded Native American life
91The Ghost Dance Movement -1890 Paiute medicine man Wovoka promised the return of the buffalo and Indian way of life.The religion prophesied the end of the westward expansion of whites and a return of Indian land.The ritual lasted five successive days, being danced each night and on the last night continued until morning.Hypnotic trances and shaking accompanied this ceremony, which was supposed to be repeated every six weeks.
92The Ghost Dance Movement -1890 Ghost Dance movement spread to the SiouxThey religiously danced even after they were told to stop by reservation authorities.Military went to arrest Sitting Bull, where he was killed.Many Sioux followers left the reservation and joined Bigfoot’s group, who were now on the run
93Telegram to Washington, D.C. Nov. 15, 1890 GHOST DANCETelegram to Washington, D.C. Nov. 15, 1890"Indians are dancing in the snow and are wild and crazy. I have fully informed you that the employees and the government property at this agency have no protection and are at the mercy of the Ghost Dancers. ... We need protection and we need it now ...nothing [short] of 1000 troops will stop this dancing."Dr. Daniel F. Royer, Agent,Pine Ridge AgencyGhost Dance 4
94GHOST SHIRTIndian warriors fighting against the US wore Ghost Shirts which were to stop the penetration of American soldiers bullets……It gave them supernatural powers as was believed………Ghost ShirtGhost Shirt
95Battle of Wounded Knee – Dec.1890 7th Calvary caught Bigfoot’s people near Wounded Knee, SDThey attempted to confiscate all weapons when a shot was fired.
96HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEEOn December 29, 1890, the Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D.A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed NativesThis event brought the “Indian Wars”– and an entire era to a bitter endHUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
97“I did not know then how much was ended “I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes still young. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people’s dream died there. It was a beautiful dream.”~Black Elk
98Battle of Wounded Knee – Dec.1890 Violence erupted, 300 Indians and 25 whites lay dead.This is the last of the Indian conflicts.Chief Big Foot
99Battle of Wounded Knee – Dec.1890 The dead of Big Foot's people were buried in a mass grave. The still frozen stiff bodies were dumped unceremoniously into the hole.The United States handed out over twenty Congressional Medals of Honor to soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry who had participated in the battle.