Presentation on theme: "The good news, the not quite so good news and the not good news Jan Hagston –"— Presentation transcript:
the good news, the not quite so good news and the not good news Jan Hagston –
What is PIAAC? PIAAC, the Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies is an international survey of adult skills in: o literacy - the ability to understand and respond appropriately to written texts. [Literacy also included the components of reading - word meaning, sentence processing and passage comprehension] o numeracy - the ability to use numerical and mathematical concepts o problem solving in technology-rich environments – the capacity to access, interpret and analyse information found, transformed and communicated in digital environments.
Proficiency is described in terms of a scale of 500 points divided into levels. Each level summarises what a person with a particular score can do. About PIAAC Literacy 6 proficiency levels (below Level 1 to Level 5) Numeracy 6 proficiency levels (below Level 1 to Level 5) Problem solving in technology- rich environments 4 proficiency (below Level 1 to Level 4)
24 countries or regions initially took part in the survey. Another 10 have since taken part and more will follow ABS conducted this household survey in Australia People 16 – 64 years of age are surveyed. Australia surveys 15 – 74 year olds The survey can be done by pen and paper or computer Participants answer a significant number of background questions which, together with the survey data, provide the potential for rich analysis Results can be compared with previous international surveys of adult skills
Problem solving in technology rich environments
Note: ‘Not classified’ refers to those adults who either opted out of the computer based assessment or who failed a basic ICT test or who had no computer experience. Problemsolving in technology- rich environments Problem solving in technology- rich environments Proportion of total Australian population aged 15 – 74 years Proportion of total Australian population aged 15 – 74 years 4.1 million 540,000
Problem solving - PSTRE
Literacy and numeracy
Proportions of persons in Literacy and Numeracy in PIAAC. Total Australian population aged years. Literacy and numeracy Literacy: 620,000 Numeracy: 1.1 million Literacy: 620,000 Numeracy: 1.1 million Literacy: 1.7 million Numeracy: 2.5 million Literacy: 1.7 million Numeracy: 2.5 million Literacy: 200,000 Numeracy: 230,000 Literacy: 200,000 Numeracy: 230,000 Literacy: 2.4 million Numeracy: 1.8 million Literacy: 2.4 million Numeracy: 1.8 million Literacy: 5.0 million Numeracy: 5.4 million Literacy: 5.0 million Numeracy: 5.4 million Literacy: 6.3 million Numeracy: 5.2 million Literacy: 6.3 million Numeracy: 5.2 million
Numeracy – what’s it mean to be below Level 1? Adults were asked to look at a photograph containing two cartons of coca cola bottles (changed to water bottles for PIAAC) and give the total number of bottles in the two full cases. This was a Pre-Level 1 item: Tasks at this level are set in concrete, familiar contexts where the mathematical content is explicit with little or no text or distractors and that require only simple processes such as counting, sorting, performing basic arithmetic operations with whole numbers or money, or recognizing common spatial representations. 1.1 million Australians aged years of age are operating at this level.
Numeracy – what can you do at Level 2? Adults were asked to look at the petrol gauge image. The task states that the petrol tank holds 48 litres and asks how many litres remain in the tank. A range of answers are allowable as correct. This was a Level 2 item: Tasks in this level require the respondent to identify and act upon mathematical information and ideas embedded in a range of common contexts where the mathematical content is fairly explicit or visual with relatively few distractors. Tasks tend to require the application of two or more steps or processes involving, for example, calculation with whole numbers and common decimals, percents and fractions; simple measurement and spatial representation; estimation; and interpretation of relatively simple data and statistics in texts, tables and graphs. About 3.6 million Australians aged years of age could NOT answer this question.
Numeracy – the bad news Numeracy scale ALLS 2006PIAAC 2012 %No.% 51.1%7,720, ,055,000 The percentage (and number) of people at Level 2 or below in numeracy has increased. Gender and numeracy 49.4% of males are at levels 1 or 2 59.0% of females are at levels 1 or 2
Numeracy - the bad news
Literacy - What does it mean to be at a level? One of the easiest literacy tasks (categorised as Below Level 1) directs the reader to look at a medicine label to determine the “maximum number of days you should take this medicine”.
Below Level 1 tasks brief texts familiar topics locate a single piece of specific information seldom any competing information requested information is identical in form to information in the question or the prompt only basic vocabulary knowledge is required the reader is not required to understand the structure of sentences or paragraphs do not make use of any features specific to digital texts.
About the task and text “days” appears in both the prompt and the text There is no competing information as the word “days” appears nowhere else in the text The word “maximum” indicates that the respondent needs to look for a number The number “7” is located next to the word “days”. 620,000 Australians aged years of age are operating at this level. Asked the “maximum number of days you should take this medicine”.
Level 4 Tasks at this level often require respondents to perform multiple-step operations to integrate, interpret, or synthesise information from complex or lengthy continuous, non-continuous, mixed, or multiple type texts. It may be necessary to make complex inferences and apply background knowledge. Many tasks require identifying and understanding one or more specific, non-central idea(s) in the text in order to interpret or evaluate subtle evidence-claim or persuasive discourse relationships. Conditional information is frequently present. Competing information is present and sometimes as prominent as correct information.
Literacy item Level = 4 (low)
Literacy item Level = 4 Only about 2 million Australians aged years of age COULD answer this question.
Literacy - the good news The percentage of people at Level 2 or below in literacy has decreased but … ALLS 2006PIAAC 2012 %No.% 45.9%6,932, %7,397,000 the number of people at Level 2 or below has increased.
Literacy - the good news
Australian population - Percentage at Levels 3, 4 and 5 by age
Why do skills decline after 44 years of age? Possible reasons: Changed use of skills Decline in cognitive skills So: May make little difference to daily life as acquired knowledge may offset skills decline We seldom need to function at the highest level Demands may reduce in later life BUT, for those working with older people, need to keep in mind this decline in skills, particularly for those working with people over 65.
International comparison of average literacy proficiency among 16 – 24 year olds MeanCountry 299Japan 297Finland 295Netherlands 293Korea 287Estonia 285Flanders (Belgium) 284Australia 283Sweden 281Poland & Czech Republic 280Average 279Germany 278Austria 276Denmark, Slovak Republic & Canada 275Norway & France 272United States 271Ireland 267Cyprus 266England/N. Ireland 264Spain 261Italy
The OECD website for PIAAC is: PIAAC reports are available from: For the details of the Australian results go to the ABS website at: -12?OpenDocument -12?OpenDocument PIAAC conference videos: vimeo.com/album/ The two key overview videos are these two: vimeo.com/album/ vimeo.com/album/ /video/ vimeo.com/album/ /video/ A recent (May 2014) analysis of the Australian PIAAC data has been done by the Productivity Commission: Further PIAAC information