Presentation on theme: "AOSC 200 Lesson 2. Other important Gases Methane - CH 4 Is produced whenever plant material decays below water, e.g. in marshes and rice paddies. Is a."— Presentation transcript:
AOSC 200 Lesson 2
Other important Gases Methane - CH 4 Is produced whenever plant material decays below water, e.g. in marshes and rice paddies. Is a greenhouse gas. Has a long lifetime in the Troposphere but breaks down in the Stratosphere to form water. Cholofluorocarbons - scientific name for the Freons. Are greenhouse gases Have a long lifetime in the Troposphere but break down in the Stratosphere to releases chlorine. Responsible for the Ozone Hole. Emissions were banned as a result of the Montreal Protocol.
Fig. 1-7, p. 9
Fig. 1-8, p. 10
Fig. 1-9, p. 11
Aerosols PARTICLES SUSPENDED IN THE ATMOSPHERE DIAMETERS MEASURED IN MICRONS – ONE MILLIONETH OF A METER. CAN MODIFY THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR ENERGY THAT REACHES THE SURFACE. CAN ACT AS CONDENSATION NUCLEI FOR CLOUD DROPLETS. PRIMARY SOURCES: SEA SALT SPRAY WIND EROSION VOLCANOES FIRES HUMAN ACTIVITY
Fig. 1-10, p. 11
Fig. 1-11, p. 12 Smoke from Forest Fires along the coast of California.
Fig Smoke from Forest Fire in New Mexico
Toricello Filled a glass tube sealed at one end He then inverted the tube in a bowl of mercury Found that the mercury did not flow out of the tube but remained in the tube, and that the height of the mercury column was constant each time he tried the experiment. He reasoned that the air was keeping the mercury in the column by pressing down on the bowl of mercury.
Fig. 1-13, p. 15
Atmospheric Pressure PRESSURE AT A POINT IS THE WEIGHT OF AIR ABOVE THAT POINT A COLUMN OF AIR AT THE SURFACE WEIGHS SLIGHTLY MORE THAN 1 KILOGRAM PER SQUARE CENTIMETER IN STILL AIR, TWO FACTORS DETERMINE THE PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY IDEAL GAS LAW PRESSURE = DENSITY.TIMES.TEMPERATURE.TIMES.CONSTANT PRESSURE CHANGES WITH ALTITUDE
Fig. 1-14, p. 17
1. Troposphere- literally means region where air “turns over” -temperature usually decreases (on average ~6.5°C/km) with altitude 2. Stratosphere- layer above the tropopause, little mixing occurs in the stratosphere, unlike the troposphere, where “turbulent mixing” is common 3. Mesosphere- defined as the region where temperature again decreases with height. 4. Thermosphere- region with very little of the atmosphere’s mass. high energy radiation received by the thermosphere (high temperatures experienced). A small density of molecules (not much “heat” would be felt). Tropopause Stratopause Mesopause
When the atmosphere moves it tends to move along constant pressure lines (isobars) and not along constant altitude lines. In meteorology it is helpful to refer to altitude as a certain pressure value rather than a height. 850 mb 1500 m (5000 ft) 700 mb 3000 m (10,000 ft) 500 mb 5500 m (18000) 300 mb 9000 m (30,000)
FRONTS You will often hear TV meteorologists refer to cold and warm fronts when describing the weather. Fronts are regions where cold and warm air masses meet. This is the region where most of the ‘weather’ is generated. We identifiy four main classes of fronts, warm, cold, stationary, occluded. Each front has an unique symbol on weather maps.
Fig. 1-15, p. 18
Fig Warm Front
Fig Cold front
Fig. 1-17, p. 21 Weather Symbols
Detailed weather symbols (1) Direction of arrow into the circle gives the wind direction. Number of barbs on the arrow gives the wind speed. Full barb = 10 miles per hour, half barb=5. (2) Sign, middle left, gives the type of precipitation. In the top left symbol the sign is fot thunder. In the bottom left it stands for steady rain. (3) Shading in inner circle gives the cloud fraction. (4) Top number on left is the temperature, bottom number the dew point
Weather symbols The numbers at top right of each symbol represent the pressure in millibars (mb) The pressure seldom drops below 950 mb and seldom gets above 1049 mb In the days of teletype the object was to shorten the amount of information sent. So if I say the pressure was 98 then the receiver could assume that I meant 998. And if I sent 14 then 1014 was assumed. To further confuse the issue it was decided to sent the tenth of a mb. So now if I sent 998 I meant Similarly 117 means