3What is Geography?Geography is the study of the earth and the way people live on it and use it.
4Geography: Defining the Discipline Geographia (Greek origins)Geo (earth) + graphein (to describe or write)To write or describe the surface of the earthThe study of the spatial arrangement and association among elements on and/or in contact with the earth’s surfaceExplaining the “big picture”
5Geography: Defining the Discipline Three defining questions…What is located where?Why are things located where they are?What is the significance?What: Geographic reference base2) Why: interaction between places near and far, understand the decision making or physical process, landscape modification, involves spatial analysis3) Significance: population clusters and movement, disease transmission, environmental degradation, etc., disaster risk
6The Geographic Perspective Understanding the ways in which humankind perceives and interacts with the Earth’s surface, its resources, and its peopleGeography lies at the intersection of both social and physical sciencesExplain the processes that give rise to spatial distributions---it’s not all about maps!Geographic landscapes are social creationsLooking locally and globally as well as over timeLandscapes are a social creation both locally and globally as people migrate, develop, reflect class, gender, ethnicity, politics, economics, etc.
7The Geographer’s Perspective From Greek term geographia“To describe the earth”Look at use of spaceMethodsMapsAtlases, books, electronic mediaImagery (photos, etc)Five themes
14Theme 1: Location Two Types of Location Where is It? Absolute RelativeWhere is It?Why is It There?
15Theme One: Location1) Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth's surfaceSample terms: Latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scaleSkills: Map reading, identificationQuestions: Where is ____? Where is ____ relative to where I am?
16LOCATION Where are we? Absolute Location Relative Location A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location).Paris France is 48o North Latitude and 2o East Longitude.The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.Relative LocationDescribed by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another.Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block.You are Here
17Absolute Location A specific place on the Earth’s surface Uses a grid systemLatitude and longitudeA global address
18Location Absolute Parallels of latitude Grid system Imaginary lines Hemispheres byEquatorPrime meridianParallels of latitudeEquator is zeroLocation N or S of zeroAka “parallels”
19North Carolina Absolute Location North Carolina 36° N Latitude 79° W longitudeChapel Hill35° 55' N Latitude79° 05' W Longitude
20Absolute Location Examples: Rome is located at 41 N, 12 E Argentina is located in the southern hemisphereEcuador is located in Tropic of Cancer.LNE is located in Lincoln, NE.
21Relative Location Where a place is in relation to another place Uses directional words to describeCardinal and intermediate directions
22North CarolinaNorth Carolina is bordered by Virginia on the north, South Carolina and Georgia on the south, and Tennessee on the west.The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's east coast.North Carolina is one of the Southeastern States
23Relative Location Examples: Rome is located near the Mediterranean Sea.Argentina is near Brazil.Ecuador is south of Mexico.Lincoln is 50 miles from Omaha.
25Theme Two: Place2) Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of localesSample terms: Physical and cultural landscapes, sense of placeSkills: Description, compare and contrastQuestions: What does ____ look like? Why? How is it different from ____?
26What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Human CharacteristicsWhat are the main languages, customs, and beliefs.How many people live, work, and visit a place.Physical CharacteristicsLandforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.
27Physical Characteristics Specific to THAT place, not generic.The way a place looks.Created by nature.MountainsRivers, Lakes, SeasClimateVegetationExamples:Andes Mountains are in South America.Amazon River flows through Brazil.Pampas are located in Argentina.The isthmus of Panama connects Central & South America.
28Cultural Characteristics Specific to THAT place, not generic.Peoples activities change the way a place looks or is represented.Man-made or invented.LanguageUnique buildingsReligious PracticesCelebrations/traditions/holidaysExamples:Portuguese is the official language of Brazil.Many Mexicans are Catholic.Mayan ruins are located in Mexico.Cinco de Mayo is a national holiday in Mexico.
29Activity: How does this song describe a place Activity: How does this song describe a place? What kind of place is this? What are its physical and human characteristics? What other songs do you know that describe places?Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Where the air is so pure, the zephyrs so free The breezes so balmy and light That I would not exchange my home on the range For all of the cities so bright Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Oh, I love those wild flow'rs in this dear land of ours The curlew, I love to hear scream And I love the white rocks and the antelope flocks That graze on the mountaintops green Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all dayHome on the Range Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day How often at night when the heavens are bright With the light from the glittering stars Have I stood there amazed and asked as I gazed If their glory exceeds that of ours
31Theme Three: Human and Environment Interaction 3) Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human-environment relationshipsSample terms: Ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollutionSkills: Evaluation, analysisQuestions: What human-environment relationships are occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants?
32Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction How People Interact With Their EnvironmentPeople . . .Adapt to Their EnvironmentModify Their EnvironmentDepend on Their Environment
33Human-Environment Interaction People use/change & live with environmentLive with climateDrain swampsDig irrigation ditchesProblems causedPollutionHabitat disappearsDesertification
34HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do humans and the environment affect each other?We depend on it.People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation.We modify it.People modify our environment byheating and cooling buildings for comfort.We adapt to it.We adapt to the environment by wearingclothing suitable for summer (shorts) andwinter (coats), rain and shine.
39Theme Four: Movement4) Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earthSample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalizationSkills: Explanation, predictionQuestions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?
40MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? Human MovementTrucks, Trains, PlanesInformation MovementPhones, computer ( ), mailIdea MovementHow do fads move from place to place?TV, Radio, Magazines
41Movement Places do not exist in isolation. Examples Interconnectedness of the world changes the way places“look”.Today: “globalization”People, goods & ideas move from place to place.ExamplesImmigration from Latin America to US.War in Iraq (troops, supplies, ideas, people)UNL (people, ideas)Myspace, Facebook (ideas)
43Movement: Activity: Find the origin of manufacture of as many items as you can on your body or in your bookbag. Examples: shirt, sneakers, jewelry, backpack, folders, pens pencils, and anything else you can find out the origin of manufacture. Make a list of the item and where it was made. How many of the items in the classroom can you name that have been manufactured in another country? What are the raw materials needed to make these items, the most likely place of production or manufacture, and the most likely form of transportation from the place of manufacture to the classroom?
45Theme Five: Regions5) Regions: how they form and changeSample terms: Formal vs. functional regionsSkills: Synthesis, applicationQuestions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?
46Region Similar or different? Formal regions Functional regions Similar characteristicsUsually more than oneFormal regionsRelated characteristicsContinent & cultureFunctional regionsSet of connections (greater DC)Perceptual regionsPeople see characteristics same way – e.g., Midwest
47Formal Region Most common/familiar. Determined by the distribution of a uniform characteristic (physical or cultural)LocationClimateReligionExamplesCentral America (Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama)Latin America (spanish-speaking nations)Tropics (countries located near equator)
48Functional Region Serves a purpose that affects places around it. Distributes goods/peopleServes specific purposeExamples:Panama CanalAmazon River BasinHollywoodHavana, Cuba
49Perceptual RegionGroups of areas that provoke a certain stereotype or feeling.Examples:The BronxThe “ghetto”China town
505 Physical Regions of the U.S 1. Pacific Coast and Intermountain Region a) includes mountains along coast 2. Rocky Mountains a) highest peaks in the U.S, above tree level 3. Great Plains a) flat grassland with little trees 4. Appalachian Mountains a) lower and less rugged than the Rockies 5. Atlantic Coastal Plain a) flat lowlands along the coast
51Remembering the 5 themes If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!!M – MovementR – RegionsHE – Human Environment InteractionL – LocationP - Place
52Why might two places be identified as part of the same region? Use the five themes of geography and answer the following questions THREE of the following questions:What is geography?Choose one of the five themes of geography and tell how it has affected your life.If you described the means of transportation available to and from school, what theme would you be using?Why might two places be identified as part of the same region?What sports are examples of human-environment interaction?Which theme would you be using if you wrote a letter describing your town?
54The Geographer’s Tools GlobesThree dimensionsAccurate not portableMaps & chartsTwo dimensionalDrawn to any scaleDifferent projectionsScale modelsTypes of mapsGeneral reference, thematic, navigationalFive Themes
55Key Terms & PlacesGlobe – A three-dimensional representation of the earth.Map – Two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth’s surface.Cartographer – A person who makes maps or charts.
56Understanding the Globe Earth is a huge sphere, like a ball. Most maps show the earth’s surface as flat. A globe is a sphere. Because of this, it provides an accurate map of our planet.Compass: An instrument for finding directions.Cardinal Points: the four main points on a compass – north, east, south, and west.Intermediate Points: points in between cardinal points – northeast, northwest, northwest, southeast, and southwest.
57Understanding the Globe Equator: An imaginary line circles Earth halfway between the north and south pole and divides the Earth into two half spheres, called hemispheres.Prime Meridian: Another imaginary line that cuts the Earth in half from the North Pole to the South Pole.WesternEasternEquatorPrime Meridian
58Understanding the Globe Over 70% of our planet is covered in water, mainly oceans.Oceans are the largest bodies of water. There four oceans. From largest to smallest, they arePacific OceanAtlantic OceanIndian OceanArctic Ocean
59Name the 4 oceans?ArcticOceanPacificOceanPacificOceanAtlanticOceanIndianOcean
60Understanding the Globe Oceans surround large landmasses called continentsThe seven continents on Earth, from largest to smallest, are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
61What are the 7 continents? EuropeAsiaNorthAmericaAfricaSouthAmericaAustraliaAntartica
62Types of Maps General reference Thematic Navigational AKA topographic Natural & man-made features of earthThematicSpecific informationClimate, populationNavigationalAKA chartsPilots’ & sailors’ useNautical Chart (detail)
63Geographic Skills Finding a location Reading a map Use of maps, charts, GPS, compass, etcReading a mapTitle, compass rose, labels, legend (key), parallels of latitude, meridians of longitude, scale, symbols, colors
64The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west.ScaleThe scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that one inch on the map equals one mile in the real world.OwlTeacher.com
65KeyThe key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols on a map represent, such as triangles representing trees.GridsSome maps use a grid of parallels and meridians. On a map of a small area, letters and numbers are often used to help you find your location.OwlTeacher.com
66Understanding Latitude and Longitude latitude and longitude – types of measurement that can pinpoint any spot on EarthLatitude lines – run west to east (p.14)Always have the same distance in between them.Are measured starting at the equator.Equator – 0 ° latitudeNorth Pole - 90° latitudeSouth Pole - 90° latitude
67Understanding Latitude and Longitude Longitude lines – lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole.Not always the same distance apartStarting place for measuring them is the Prime MeridianPrime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude
68Understanding Latitude and Longitude To note a place on Earth, first name its latitude, then its longitude.For example, one location on Earth’s surface is at 30 degrees N, 90 degrees W. Can you find this location on the map on page 15?
69How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid OwlTeacher.com
72Geographic Skills – 3 Scale How much detailRatio scaleBar scaleHow to remember:“Small” = small amount of detail“Large” = large amount of detail
73Geographic Skills -4 Using the Grid Parallels of latitude90° North latitude90° South latitudeLongitude180° W longitude180° E longitudeInternational date lineDegrees, minutes, secondsLocate any point on earthDakar: 14°43’N17°28”W
74Getting It All On the Map The World: Mercator ProjectionIn 1569, a geographer named Gerardus Mercator created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys across the globe.The Mercator projection, or method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper, is used by nearly all deep-sea navigators.The Mercator projection is a conformal map, meaning that it shows correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes.There are many types of other projections of the globe.OwlTeacher.com
75The World: Three Projections There are many ways to show a globe on a flat map. The interrupted projection map, on the left, shows real sizes and shapes of continents. The equal area map , below left, shows size accurately. The Peters projection, below, shows land and oceans areas and correct directions accuratelyInterrupted ProjectionPeters ProjectionEqual-Area ProjectionOwlTeacher.com
76Geographic Skills – 5 Projections How to showCurved surfaceFlat matDistortion inevitable“Choose your poison”Mercator (cylindrical) projectionConical projection