What is Geography? Geography is the study of the earth and the way people live on it and use it.
Geography: Defining the Discipline Geographia (Greek origins) – Geo (earth) + graphein (to describe or write) – To write or describe the surface of the earth The study of the spatial arrangement and association among elements on and/or in contact with the earth’s surface Explaining the “big picture”
Geography: Defining the Discipline Three defining questions… – What is located where? – Why are things located where they are? – What is the significance?
The Geographic Perspective Understanding the ways in which humankind perceives and interacts with the Earth’s surface, its resources, and its people Geography lies at the intersection of both social and physical sciences Explain the processes that give rise to spatial distributions---it’s not all about maps! Geographic landscapes are social creations
The Geographer’s Perspective From Greek term geographia – “To describe the earth” – Look at use of space Methods – Maps – Atlases, books, electronic media – Imagery (photos, etc) – Five themes
Theme 1: Location Where is It? Why is It There? Two Types of Location Absolute Relative
Theme One: Location 1) Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth's surface Sample terms: Latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scale Skills: Map reading, identification Questions: Where is ____? Where is ____ relative to where I am?
LOCATION Where are we? Absolute Location – A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). – Paris France is 48 o North Latitude and 2 o East Longitude. – The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Relative Location – Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. – Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. You are Here
Absolute Location A specific place on the Earth’s surface Uses a grid system Latitude and longitude A global address
Location Absolute – Grid system – Imaginary lines – Hemispheres by Equator Prime meridian Parallels of latitude – Equator is zero – Location N or S of zero – Aka “parallels”
North Carolina Absolute Location North Carolina 36° N Latitude 79° W longitude Chapel Hill 35° 55' N Latitude 79° 05' W Longitude
Absolute Location Examples: – Rome is located at 41 N, 12 E – Argentina is located in the southern hemisphere – Ecuador is located in Tropic of Cancer. – LNE is located in Lincoln, NE.
Relative Location Where a place is in relation to another place Uses directional words to describe – Cardinal and intermediate directions
North Carolina North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on the north, South Carolina and Georgia on the south, and Tennessee on the west. The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's east coast. North Carolina is one of the Southeastern States
Relative Location Examples: – Rome is located near the Mediterranean Sea. – Argentina is near Brazil. – Ecuador is south of Mexico. – Lincoln is 50 miles from Omaha.
2) Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales Sample terms: Physical and cultural landscapes, sense of place Skills: Description, compare and contrast Questions: What does ____ look like? Why? How is it different from ____? Theme Two: Place
PLACE What is it like there, what kind of place is it? Human Characteristics What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. How many people live, work, and visit a place. Physical Characteristics Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.
Physical Characteristics Specific to THAT place, not generic. – The way a place looks. Created by nature. – Mountains – Rivers, Lakes, Seas – Climate – Vegetation Examples: – Andes Mountains are in South America. – Amazon River flows through Brazil. – Pampas are located in Argentina. – The isthmus of Panama connects Central & South America.
Cultural Characteristics Specific to THAT place, not generic. – Peoples activities change the way a place looks or is represented. Man-made or invented. – Language – Unique buildings – Religious Practices – Celebrations/traditions/holidays Examples: – Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. – Many Mexicans are Catholic. – Mayan ruins are located in Mexico. – Cinco de Mayo is a national holiday in Mexico.
Activity: How does this song describe a place? What kind of place is this? What are its physical and human characteristics? What other songs do you know that describe places? Home on the Range Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day How often at night when the heavens are bright With the light from the glittering stars Have I stood there amazed and asked as I gazed If their glory exceeds that of ours Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Where the air is so pure, the zephyrs so free The breezes so balmy and light That I would not exchange my home on the range For all of the cities so bright Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Oh, I love those wild flow'rs in this dear land of ours The curlew, I love to hear scream And I love the white rocks and the antelope flocks That graze on the mountaintops green Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day
3) Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human- environment relationships Sample terms: Ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollution Skills: Evaluation, analysis Questions: What human-environment relationships are occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants? Theme Three: Human and Environment Interaction
Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction How People Interact With Their Environment People... Adapt to Their Environment Modify Their Environment Depend on Their Environment http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg
Human-Environment Interaction People use/change & live with environment – Live with climate – Drain swamps – Dig irrigation ditches Problems caused – Pollution – Habitat disappears – Desertification
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION How do humans and the environment affect each other? – We depend on it. People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. – We modify it. People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. – We adapt to it. We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.
North Carolina: Human Environment Interaction http://aam.wcu.edu/grant/images/Fontana%20Dam%20Shirley.jpg http://www.ee.duke.edu/~sag8/Duke/02-03/PiKA/Fall%20Break/Fall_Break_02.htm http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/091002/images/mallc.jpg
Interaction A. Interaction between people and their environment Activity: List ways that people affect their environment. Are these harmful or helpful?
4) Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth Sample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalization Skills: Explanation, prediction Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved? Theme Four: Movement
MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place? – Human Movement Trucks, Trains, Planes – Information Movement Phones, computer (email), mail – Idea Movement How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines
Movement Places do not exist in isolation. – Interconnectedness of the world changes the way places“look”. Today: “globalization” – People, goods & ideas move from place to place. Examples – Immigration from Latin America to US. – War in Iraq (troops, supplies, ideas, people) – UNL (people, ideas) – Myspace, Facebook (ideas)
North Carolina: Movement http://www.marad.dot.gov/Gallery/MoreheadCity/pages/Ming%20Europe.htm http://www.evertize.com/land/images/I-40-64%20interchange.JPG
Movement: Activity: Find the origin of manufacture of as many items as you can on your body or in your bookbag. Examples: shirt, sneakers, jewelry, backpack, folders, pens pencils, and anything else you can find out the origin of manufacture. Make a list of the item and where it was made. How many of the items in the classroom can you name that have been manufactured in another country? What are the raw materials needed to make these items, the most likely place of production or manufacture, and the most likely form of transportation from the place of manufacture to the classroom?
5) Regions: how they form and change Sample terms: Formal vs. functional regions Skills: Synthesis, application Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved? Theme Five: Regions
Region Similar or different? – Similar characteristics – Usually more than one Formal regions – Related characteristics – Continent & culture Functional regions – Set of connections (greater DC) Perceptual regions – People see characteristics same way – e.g., Midwest
Formal Region Most common/familiar. Determined by the distribution of a uniform characteristic (physical or cultural) – Location – Climate – Religion Examples – Central America (Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama) – Latin America (spanish-speaking nations) – Tropics (countries located near equator)
Functional Region Serves a purpose that affects places around it. – Distributes goods/people – Serves specific purpose Examples: – Panama Canal – Amazon River Basin – Hollywood – Havana, Cuba
Perceptual Region Groups of areas that provoke a certain stereotype or feeling. Examples: – The Bronx – The “ghetto” – China town
5 Physical Regions of the U.S 1. Pacific Coast and Intermountain Region a) includes mountains along coast 2. Rocky Mountains a) highest peaks in the U.S, above tree level 3. Great Plains a) flat grassland with little trees 4. Appalachian Mountains a) lower and less rugged than the Rockies 5. Atlantic Coastal Plain a) flat lowlands along the coast
Remembering the 5 themes If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!! M – Movement R – Regions HE – Human Environment Interaction L – Location P - Place
Use the five themes of geography and answer the following questions THREE of the following questions: 1.What is geography? 2.Choose one of the five themes of geography and tell how it has affected your life. 3. If you described the means of transportation available to and from school, what theme would you be using? 4.Why might two places be identified as part of the same region? 5.What sports are examples of human-environment interaction? 6. Which theme would you be using if you wrote a letter describing your town?
The Geographer’s Tools Globes – Three dimensions – Accurate not portable Maps & charts – Two dimensional – Drawn to any scale – Different projections Scale models Types of maps – General reference, thematic, navigational Five Themes
Key Terms & Places Globe – A three-dimensional representation of the earth. Map – Two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth’s surface. Cartographer – A person who makes maps or charts.
Understanding the Globe Earth is a huge sphere, like a ball. Most maps show the earth’s surface as flat. A globe is a sphere. Because of this, it provides an accurate map of our planet. Compass: An instrument for finding directions. Cardinal Points: the four main points on a compass – north, east, south, and west. Intermediate Points: points in between cardinal points – northeast, northwest, northwest, southeast, and southwest.
Understanding the Globe Equator: An imaginary line circles Earth halfway between the north and south pole and divides the Earth into two half spheres, called hemispheres. Prime Meridian: Another imaginary line that cuts the Earth in half from the North Pole to the South Pole. Equator Prime Meridian Western Eastern
Understanding the Globe Over 70% of our planet is covered in water, mainly oceans. Oceans are the largest bodies of water. There four oceans. From largest to smallest, they are – Pacific Ocean – Atlantic Ocean – Indian Ocean – Arctic Ocean
Understanding the Globe Oceans surround large landmasses called continents The seven continents on Earth, from largest to smallest, are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
Types of Maps General reference – AKA topographic – Natural & man-made features of earth Thematic – Specific information – Climate, population Navigational – AKA charts – Pilots’ & sailors’ use Nautical Chart (detail)
Geographic Skills Finding a location – Use of maps, charts, GPS, compass, etc Reading a map – Title, compass rose, labels, legend (key), parallels of latitude, meridians of longitude, scale, symbols, colors
The Parts of a Map Compass Rose A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west. Scale The scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that one inch on the map equals one mile in the real world. OwlTeacher.com
Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols on a map represent, such as triangles representing trees. Grids Some maps use a grid of parallels and meridians. On a map of a small area, letters and numbers are often used to help you find your location. OwlTeacher.com
Understanding Latitude and Longitude latitude and longitude – types of measurement that can pinpoint any spot on Earth Latitude lines – run west to east (p.14) – Always have the same distance in between them. – Are measured starting at the equator. – Equator – 0 ° latitude – North Pole - 90° latitude – South Pole - 90° latitude
Understanding Latitude and Longitude Longitude lines – lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole. – Not always the same distance apart – Starting place for measuring them is the Prime Meridian – Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude
Understanding Latitude and Longitude To note a place on Earth, first name its latitude, then its longitude. For example, one location on Earth’s surface is at 30 degrees N, 90 degrees W. Can you find this location on the map on page 15?
How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid OwlTeacher.com
Geographic Skills – 3 Scale Scale – How much detail – Ratio scale – Bar scale How to remember: – “Small” = small amount of detail – “Large” = large amount of detail
Geographic Skills -4 Using the Grid Parallels of latitude – 90° North latitude – 90° South latitude Longitude – 180° W longitude – 180° E longitude – International date line Degrees, minutes, seconds Locate any point on earth – Dakar: 14°43’N 17°28”W
Getting It All On the Map OwlTeacher.com In 1569, a geographer named Gerardus Mercator created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys across the globe. The Mercator projection, or method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper, is used by nearly all deep-sea navigators. The Mercator projection is a conformal map, meaning that it shows correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes. There are many types of other projections of the globe. The World: Mercator Projection
The World: Three Projections OwlTeacher.com There are many ways to show a globe on a flat map. The interrupted projection map, on the left, shows real sizes and shapes of continents. The equal area map, below left, shows size accurately. The Peters projection, below, shows land and oceans areas and correct directions accurately Interrupted Projection Equal-Area Projection Peters Projection
Geographic Skills – 5 Projections How to show – Curved surface – Flat mat – Distortion inevitable – “Choose your poison” Mercator (cylindrical) projection Conical projection