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THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY

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Presentation on theme: "THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY

2 Defining Geography

3 What is Geography? Geography is the study of the earth and the way people live on it and use it.

4 Geography: Defining the Discipline
Geographia (Greek origins) Geo (earth) + graphein (to describe or write) To write or describe the surface of the earth The study of the spatial arrangement and association among elements on and/or in contact with the earth’s surface Explaining the “big picture”

5 Geography: Defining the Discipline
Three defining questions… What is located where? Why are things located where they are? What is the significance? What: Geographic reference base 2) Why: interaction between places near and far, understand the decision making or physical process, landscape modification, involves spatial analysis 3) Significance: population clusters and movement, disease transmission, environmental degradation, etc., disaster risk

6 The Geographic Perspective
Understanding the ways in which humankind perceives and interacts with the Earth’s surface, its resources, and its people Geography lies at the intersection of both social and physical sciences Explain the processes that give rise to spatial distributions---it’s not all about maps! Geographic landscapes are social creations Looking locally and globally as well as over time Landscapes are a social creation both locally and globally as people migrate, develop, reflect class, gender, ethnicity, politics, economics, etc.

7 The Geographer’s Perspective
From Greek term geographia “To describe the earth” Look at use of space Methods Maps Atlases, books, electronic media Imagery (photos, etc) Five themes

8 Spatial variation: predominant religion

9 Why spatial variation exists: earthquakes

10 Changes over time: deforestation

11 Five Themes of Geography

12 THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
Location Place Human-Environment Interaction Movement Regions

13 Location

14 Theme 1: Location Two Types of Location Where is It? Absolute
Relative Where is It? Why is It There?

15 Theme One: Location 1) Location: the meaning of relative and absolute position on the earth's surface Sample terms: Latitude and longitude, site and situation, direction, distance, scale Skills: Map reading, identification Questions: Where is ____? Where is ____ relative to where I am?

16 LOCATION Where are we? Absolute Location Relative Location
A latitude and longitude (global location) or a street address (local location). Paris France is 48o North Latitude and 2o East Longitude. The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. Relative Location Described by landmarks, time, direction or distance. From one place to another. Go 1 mile west on main street and turn left for 1 block. You are Here

17 Absolute Location A specific place on the Earth’s surface
Uses a grid system Latitude and longitude A global address

18 Location Absolute Parallels of latitude Grid system Imaginary lines
Hemispheres by Equator Prime meridian Parallels of latitude Equator is zero Location N or S of zero Aka “parallels”

19 North Carolina Absolute Location North Carolina 36° N Latitude
79° W longitude Chapel Hill 35° 55' N Latitude 79° 05' W Longitude

20 Absolute Location Examples: Rome is located at 41 N, 12 E
Argentina is located in the southern hemisphere Ecuador is located in Tropic of Cancer. LNE is located in Lincoln, NE.

21 Relative Location Where a place is in relation to another place
Uses directional words to describe Cardinal and intermediate directions

22 North Carolina North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on the north, South Carolina and Georgia on the south, and Tennessee on the west. The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's east coast. North Carolina is one of the Southeastern States

23 Relative Location Examples:
Rome is located near the Mediterranean Sea. Argentina is near Brazil. Ecuador is south of Mexico. Lincoln is 50 miles from Omaha.

24 Place

25 Theme Two: Place 2) Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales Sample terms: Physical and cultural landscapes, sense of place Skills: Description, compare and contrast Questions: What does ____ look like? Why? How is it different from ____?

26 What is it like there, what kind of place is it?
Human Characteristics What are the main languages, customs, and beliefs. How many people live, work, and visit a place. Physical Characteristics Landforms (mountains, rivers, etc.), climate, vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.

27 Physical Characteristics
Specific to THAT place, not generic. The way a place looks. Created by nature. Mountains Rivers, Lakes, Seas Climate Vegetation Examples: Andes Mountains are in South America. Amazon River flows through Brazil. Pampas are located in Argentina. The isthmus of Panama connects Central & South America.

28 Cultural Characteristics
Specific to THAT place, not generic. Peoples activities change the way a place looks or is represented. Man-made or invented. Language Unique buildings Religious Practices Celebrations/traditions/holidays Examples: Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Many Mexicans are Catholic. Mayan ruins are located in Mexico. Cinco de Mayo is a national holiday in Mexico.

29 Activity: How does this song describe a place
Activity: How does this song describe a place? What kind of place is this? What are its physical and human characteristics? What other songs do you know that describe places? Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Where the air is so pure, the zephyrs so free The breezes so balmy and light That I would not exchange my home on the range For all of the cities so bright Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Oh, I love those wild flow'rs in this dear land of ours The curlew, I love to hear scream And I love the white rocks and the antelope flocks That graze on the mountaintops green Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Home on the Range Oh, give me a home where the buffalo roam Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day Home, home on the range Where the deer and the antelope play Where seldom is heard a discouraging word And the skies are not cloudy all day How often at night when the heavens are bright With the light from the glittering stars Have I stood there amazed and asked as I gazed If their glory exceeds that of ours

30 Human-Environment Interaction

31 Theme Three: Human and Environment Interaction
3) Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human-environment relationships Sample terms: Ecosystems, natural resources, environmental pollution Skills: Evaluation, analysis Questions: What human-environment relationships are occurring? How do they affect the place and its inhabitants?

32 Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction
How People Interact With Their Environment People . . . Adapt to Their Environment Modify Their Environment Depend on Their Environment

33 Human-Environment Interaction
People use/change & live with environment Live with climate Drain swamps Dig irrigation ditches Problems caused Pollution Habitat disappears Desertification

34 HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
How do humans and the environment affect each other? We depend on it. People depend on the Tennessee River for water and transportation. We modify it. People modify our environment by heating and cooling buildings for comfort. We adapt to it. We adapt to the environment by wearing clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and winter (coats), rain and shine.

35 North Carolina: Human Environment Interaction

36 A. Interaction between people and their environment
Activity: List ways that people affect their environment. Are these harmful or helpful?

37

38 Movement

39 Theme Four: Movement 4) Movement: patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth Sample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalization Skills: Explanation, prediction Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?

40 MOVEMENT How are people, goods, ideas moved from place to place?
Human Movement Trucks, Trains, Planes Information Movement Phones, computer ( ), mail Idea Movement How do fads move from place to place? TV, Radio, Magazines

41 Movement Places do not exist in isolation. Examples
Interconnectedness of the world changes the way places“look”. Today: “globalization” People, goods & ideas move from place to place. Examples Immigration from Latin America to US. War in Iraq (troops, supplies, ideas, people) UNL (people, ideas) Myspace, Facebook (ideas)

42 North Carolina: Movement

43 Movement: Activity: Find the origin of manufacture of as many items as you can on your body or in your bookbag. Examples: shirt, sneakers, jewelry, backpack, folders, pens pencils, and anything else you can find out the origin of manufacture. Make a list of the item and where it was made. How many of the items in the classroom can you name that have been manufactured in another country? What are the raw materials needed to make these items, the most likely place of production or manufacture, and the most likely form of transportation from the place of manufacture to the classroom?

44 Regions

45 Theme Five: Regions 5) Regions: how they form and change Sample terms: Formal vs. functional regions Skills: Synthesis, application Questions: How has this spatial pattern developed? Will it continue to change? What does it mean for the places involved?

46 Region Similar or different? Formal regions Functional regions
Similar characteristics Usually more than one Formal regions Related characteristics Continent & culture Functional regions Set of connections (greater DC) Perceptual regions People see characteristics same way – e.g., Midwest

47 Formal Region Most common/familiar.
Determined by the distribution of a uniform characteristic (physical or cultural) Location Climate Religion Examples Central America (Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama) Latin America (spanish-speaking nations) Tropics (countries located near equator)

48 Functional Region Serves a purpose that affects places around it.
Distributes goods/people Serves specific purpose Examples: Panama Canal Amazon River Basin Hollywood Havana, Cuba

49 Perceptual Region Groups of areas that provoke a certain stereotype or feeling. Examples: The Bronx The “ghetto” China town

50 5 Physical Regions of the U.S
1. Pacific Coast and Intermountain Region a) includes mountains along coast 2. Rocky Mountains a) highest peaks in the U.S, above tree level 3. Great Plains a) flat grassland with little trees 4. Appalachian Mountains a) lower and less rugged than the Rockies 5. Atlantic Coastal Plain a) flat lowlands along the coast

51 Remembering the 5 themes
If you can’t remembering what they are just ask MR. HELP!!! M – Movement R – Regions HE – Human Environment Interaction L – Location P - Place

52 Why might two places be identified as part of the same region?
Use the five themes of geography and answer the following questions THREE of the following questions: What is geography? Choose one of the five themes of geography and tell how it has affected your life. If you described the means of transportation available to and from school, what theme would you be using? Why might two places be identified as part of the same region? What sports are examples of human-environment interaction? Which theme would you be using if you wrote a letter describing your town?

53 Key Geography Terms and Skills

54 The Geographer’s Tools
Globes Three dimensions Accurate not portable Maps & charts Two dimensional Drawn to any scale Different projections Scale models Types of maps General reference, thematic, navigational Five Themes

55 Key Terms & Places Globe – A three-dimensional representation of the earth. Map – Two-dimensional graphic representations of selected parts of the earth’s surface. Cartographer – A person who makes maps or charts.

56 Understanding the Globe
Earth is a huge sphere, like a ball. Most maps show the earth’s surface as flat. A globe is a sphere. Because of this, it provides an accurate map of our planet. Compass: An instrument for finding directions. Cardinal Points: the four main points on a compass – north, east, south, and west. Intermediate Points: points in between cardinal points – northeast, northwest, northwest, southeast, and southwest.

57 Understanding the Globe
Equator: An imaginary line circles Earth halfway between the north and south pole and divides the Earth into two half spheres, called hemispheres. Prime Meridian: Another imaginary line that cuts the Earth in half from the North Pole to the South Pole. Western Eastern Equator Prime Meridian

58 Understanding the Globe
Over 70% of our planet is covered in water, mainly oceans. Oceans are the largest bodies of water. There four oceans. From largest to smallest, they are Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean

59 Name the 4 oceans? Arctic Ocean Pacific Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean

60 Understanding the Globe
Oceans surround large landmasses called continents The seven continents on Earth, from largest to smallest, are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

61 What are the 7 continents?
Europe Asia North America Africa South America Australia Antartica

62 Types of Maps General reference Thematic Navigational AKA topographic
Natural & man-made features of earth Thematic Specific information Climate, population Navigational AKA charts Pilots’ & sailors’ use Nautical Chart (detail)

63 Geographic Skills Finding a location Reading a map
Use of maps, charts, GPS, compass, etc Reading a map Title, compass rose, labels, legend (key), parallels of latitude, meridians of longitude, scale, symbols, colors

64 The Parts of a Map Compass Rose
A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells the cardinal directions, which are north, south, east, and west. Scale The scale on a map tells you the relative distance on the map to the real world. For example, a map’s scale may tell you that one inch on the map equals one mile in the real world. OwlTeacher.com

65 Key The key, or legend, on a map explains what the symbols on a map represent, such as triangles representing trees. Grids Some maps use a grid of parallels and meridians. On a map of a small area, letters and numbers are often used to help you find your location. OwlTeacher.com

66 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
latitude and longitude – types of measurement that can pinpoint any spot on Earth Latitude lines – run west to east (p.14) Always have the same distance in between them. Are measured starting at the equator. Equator – 0 ° latitude North Pole - 90° latitude South Pole - 90° latitude

67 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
Longitude lines – lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole. Not always the same distance apart Starting place for measuring them is the Prime Meridian Prime Meridian is at 0 degrees longitude

68 Understanding Latitude and Longitude
To note a place on Earth, first name its latitude, then its longitude. For example, one location on Earth’s surface is at 30 degrees N, 90 degrees W. Can you find this location on the map on page 15?

69 How Latitude and Longitude Form the Global Grid
OwlTeacher.com

70 The Hemispheres OwlTeacher.com

71 Geographic Skills – 2 Reading a Map

72 Geographic Skills – 3 Scale
How much detail Ratio scale Bar scale How to remember: “Small” = small amount of detail “Large” = large amount of detail

73 Geographic Skills -4 Using the Grid
Parallels of latitude 90° North latitude 90° South latitude Longitude 180° W longitude 180° E longitude International date line Degrees, minutes, seconds Locate any point on earth Dakar: 14°43’N 17°28”W

74 Getting It All On the Map
The World: Mercator Projection In 1569, a geographer named Gerardus Mercator created a flat map to help sailors navigate long journeys across the globe. The Mercator projection, or method of putting a map of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper, is used by nearly all deep-sea navigators. The Mercator projection is a conformal map, meaning that it shows correct shapes, but not true distances or sizes. There are many types of other projections of the globe. OwlTeacher.com

75 The World: Three Projections
There are many ways to show a globe on a flat map. The interrupted projection map, on the left, shows real sizes and shapes of continents. The equal area map , below left, shows size accurately. The Peters projection, below, shows land and oceans areas and correct directions accurately Interrupted Projection Peters Projection Equal-Area Projection OwlTeacher.com

76 Geographic Skills – 5 Projections
How to show Curved surface Flat mat Distortion inevitable “Choose your poison” Mercator (cylindrical) projection Conical projection

77 Geographic Skills – 6 Robinson Projection

78 The World: A Robinson Projection
ARCTIC OCEAN OwlTeacher.com

79 Geographic Skills – 7 Different Types of Maps
Italy; political Italy; physical

80 Geographic Skills - 8 Thematic Map
The idea of a united Europe stretches back thousands of years. The early enthusiasts were seldom as high-minded as their modern successors (www.economist.com)

81 Geographic Skills – 9 Cartograms


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