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session: intercultural COMMUNICATION

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1 session: intercultural COMMUNICATION

2 Contents Intro: Intercultural competence
Definitions: communication, culture, intercultural communication What causes communication problems in an intercultural setting Verbal communication Non-verbal communication Richard Lewis’ model of intercultural communication Introduction to assignment Gewoon overlopen van de inhoudstafel van de presentatie

3 Intro: Intercultural competence
“The 21st century is upon us. As inhabitants of this post-millennium world, you no longer have a choice about whether to live and communicate among many cultures. Your only choice is whether you will learn to do it well...” Lustig, Koester & Taylor

4 Intro: Intercultural competence
The imperative for intercultural competence Demographic imperative Technological imperative Economic imperative Peace imperative Interpersonal imperative

5 Send/Receive Messages through Various Channels
What is communication? Verbal and non-verbal (90%) Culture P e r s o n A B Send/Receive Messages through Various Channels Encode/ Decode Noise

6 What is culture? The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another. A learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, norms and social practices which affect the behaviours of a relatively large group of people

7 Layers of Culture family country sports club company National Regional
Educational Professional Gender Class Religious Generational Ethnic Corporate Personal country family sports club company

8 Culture, an iceberg … Heroes Symbols Rituals Values Norms Beliefs
Social practices Values Norms Beliefs

9 Values …

10 Symbols…

11 Heroes…

12 Rituals …

13 What is intercultural communication?
Intercultural communication is a symbolic, interpretive, transactional & contextual process in which people from different cultures create shared meanings. It occurs when large and important cultural differences create dissimilar interpretations and expectations about how to communicate competently  Sender & receiver have different cultural backgrounds

14 What causes communication problems in an intercultural setting?
Verbal and Non-verbal communication

15 Cultural differences in communication

16 What can go wrong – verbal (1)
Non-native speakers (often at least one of them) One-on-one translations Translation of jokes, sayings, a pun … often not possible Time relativity in a global perspective Use of other measures gallon, mile, ounce, …

17 What can go wrong – verbal (2)
WASHINGTON (AP) — “Failure to convert English measures to metric values caused the loss of the Mars Climate Orbiter, a spacecraft that smashed into the planet instead of reaching a safe orbit, a NASA investigation concluded Wednesday. […] An investigation board concluded that NASA engineers failed to convert English measures of rocket thrusts to Newton, a metric system measuring rocket force. One English pound of force equals 4.45 Newton. A small difference between the two values caused the spacecraft to approach Mars at too low an altitude and the craft is thought to have smashed into the planet’s atmosphere and was destroyed.”

18 What can go wrong – verbal (3)
Pronunciation of words “Sh” cannot be pronounced in Finnish The English “th” Different vocabulary Snow (Inuit) Green (Zulu)

19 Verbal communication Hindi English Baap (pitagi), maa Father, mother
Baba (dada), amma (dadi) Father’s father, father’s mother Nana, nani Mother’s father, mother’s mother Taaya, taayi Father’s/wife of father’s elder brother Chacha, chachi Father’s/wife of father’s younger brother Mama, mami Mother’s/wife of mother’s brother Booa, fooa Father’s sister, husband of father’s sister Mausi, mausa Mother’s/ husband of mother’s sister Bahai Brother Bhabhi Brother’s wife Bhatija, bhatiji Brother’s son/daughter Bahin Sister …. Verbal communication

20 What can go wrong – verbal (4)
Politeness Vous / tu – u / jij - you First names Japan: “I” is different in different contexts Grammar Existence of present tense Past tenses (was/has been) My grandfather never went abroad ≠ has never gone abroad Le subjonctif n’existe pas en néerlandais

21 What can go wrong - examples
Irish Mist

22 What can go wrong – examples

23 What can go wrong – examples
Mazda Laputa

24 What can go wrong – examples
Slogans Parker Pen "It won't leak in your pocket and embarrass you" translated into "It won't leak in your pocket and make you pregnant” in Spanish Pepsi "Come Alive With the Pepsi Generation" translated into "Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back From the Grave" in Chinese

25 What can go wrong – non-verbal (1)
Body-language Nodding = YES or NO ??? Laughing = happiness or insecurity ??? Avoiding eye contact = respect or shame ??? Physical distance - touching each other - kissing


27 What can go wrong – non-verbal (2)
Colours Red = political colour of … EU: left-sided political parties US: Republicans White = colour of … EU: marriage Catholics: joy China, Muslim: death

28 What can go wrong – non-verbal (3)
Symbols Different meanings Not understandable outside the group Thumbs up = OK, … but offensive in Greece

29 What can go wrong – non-verbal (4)
Values: nudity

30 What can go wrong – non-verbal (5)
Values: diseases

31 What can go wrong - non-verbal (6)
Values: religion

32 What can go wrong – (non)verbal (7)
Direction in which we read Left to right, top to bottom, … … problems if the message is read from right to left Our usual perspective tml

33 Richard lewis’ model

34 Richard Lewis’ model of Cultural Categories


36 National Communication Patterns
– Italy –

37 National Communication Patterns
– Finland –

38 National Communication Patterns
– Germany –

39 National Communication Patterns
– UK –

40 Listening Habits – Belgium –

41 Conclusion ‘Tolerance, intercultural dialogue and respect for diversity are more essential than ever in a world where people are becoming more and more closely interconnected.’ Kofi Annan

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